THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE
1. There is increased suffrage but decreased turnout;
2. There is mass selection of candidates but low policy effect'
3. There is more direct contact with candidates but more filtering mechanisms, e.g. Television.

PRO:
Logic of the Electoral College: it is an additional filtering mechanism. The House is chosen directly; the Senate is chosen by people chosen by the people; the president was chosen by people chosen by people who are chosen by the people.

Electors cast votes on the Tuesday following the second Monday at their state capitals. In January, at a joint session of Congress the President of the Senate, counts the votes and announces the results.
CON:
I.    A "wrong" choice could be made:
A. 1948 Truman won by 2.2 million votes, but a total swing of 30,000 in California
and Ohio would have swung the election to Dewey
B. 1960 a 12,000 vote change in five states would have swung the election of Kennedy.
C. 1976 5,548 (.14%) in Ohio and 3,686 (1.2%) in Hawaii and Ford would have won.
D. Possibility of President with less than 50% of registered voters-- Lincoln, Nixon (1968),
Clinton  (1992).
II. Regional or Third party effects:
A. Act as spoilers or power brokers.
B. Bull Moose party threw election to Wilson (Condorcet Candidate).
C. If election goes to the House, Third party gets concessions not popularly deserved.
E. Wallace, with 45 electoral votes, gave Nixon just 301, 31 above majority
1. Had Humphrey won 1.6% more in California the election would have gone to
the House.

III. Makes for an unequal distribution of power.

A. exaggerates attention in large states.
B. Any votes above a majority are wasted (Riker's "The Theory of Political Coalition

The System Actually Works

A. The mathematics:
1. The "Size" Principle:  Alan Hivley, "Math Against Tyranny" Discover, Nov. 1996

B. Application of Theory
1. 1960 World Series:

 Game 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Runs Total Wins Pittsburgh Pirates 6 3 0 3 5 0 10 27 4 New York Yankees 4 16 10 2 2 12 9 55 3

Estimated Gains Or Losses In Congressional Seats In 2002
Due To Population Shifts In The 2000 Census

 Arizona +1 Mississippi -1 California +3 Nebraska -1 Colorado +1 Nevada +1 Connecticut -1 New Hampshire -1 Florida +1 New York -1 Georgia +1 Pennsylvania -1 Illinois -1 Rhode Island -1 Iowa -1 Texas +3 Massachusetts -1 Washington +1 Michigan -1 West Virginia -1
Campaigns And Elections Magazine

Electoral College Dateline

Electoral College Calendar Spring of election year: Each political party chooses electors and alternates in each state according to the number of electors for that state. This is usually done at a state convention.

November (1st Tuesday after the first Monday): Popular vote in each state to determine which party's electors go to the Electoral College.

December: Electoral College meets in each State Capital and in D.C. to cast votes.

January: When Congress opens, the electoral votes are counted and the election is official if both the presidential and the vice-presidential candidate have 270 votes. If no presidential candidate gets the needed 270 votes, the election is decided in the House of Representatives with each state delegation having one vote. (26 votes to win) The Senators, voting individually, will elect the vice-president.

STATES NECESSARY  TO ACHIEVE 270 ELECTORAL VOTES:

 CALIFORNIA 54 NEW YORK 33 TEXAS 32 FLORIDA 25 PENNSYLVANIA 23 ILLINOIS 22 OHIO 21 MICHIGAN 18 NEW JERSEY 15 N CAROLINA 14 GEORGIA 13 * VIRGINIA 13 * Total 270