Chapter 26: Convicted Rapists’ Vocabulary of Motive; Diana Scully & Joseph Marolla

Excuses and Justifications: know difference


 5 Justifications for Rape

1. Women as Seductresses

2. Women mean “Yes” when they say “no”

3. Most women Eventually Relax and Enjoy it

4. Nice Girls Don’t Get Raped

5. Only a Minor Wrongdoing


 3 Excuses for Rape

1. The Use of Alcohol and Drugs

2. Emotional Problems

3. Nice Guy Image


Chapter 27: The Devil Made Me Do It: Use of Neutralizations by Shoplifters; Paul Cromwell and Quint Thurman


5 Techniques of Neutralizations from Lecture:

1. Denial of Responsibility 

2. Denial of Injury

3. Denial of the Victim 

4. Condemning the Condemners

5. Appeal to Higher Loyalties


4 New Techniques of Neutralization from this chapter:

1. Defense of Necessity

2. Everybody Does It

3. Justification by Comparison

4. Postponement


Chapter 28: Men Who Cheer; Michelle Bemiller

Two Types of Stigma:

1. Participation in a Feminine Sport

2. Sexuality


Three Face-Saving Strategies:

1. Territoriality

2. Masculine Aspects of the Sport

3. Sexual Objectification of Women