Read Gilbert Ryle, "Descartes' Myth," (pp. 71-79 in Feldman).
Read David Armstrong, "Difficulties
for Any Dualist Theory," (pp. 80-87
Answer the following questions:
1. Recall that minds (if there are any such things) are "unextended thinking things" -- they are things with absolutely no spatial extension. It seems to be an open question, however, whether these unextended things are located in space or are somehow outside of space. It seems that a dualist could go either way: she could hold that minds, while they have no spatial extension, are still located in space -- that they are "point-sized" objects; or she could instead hold that minds are not located in space at all.
(a) According to Ryle's understanding of dualism, are minds located in space or outside of space? Provide a quotation (with page reference) to support your answer.
(b) According to Armstrong's understanding of dualism, are minds located in space or outside of space? Provide a quotation (with page reference) to support your answer.
2. Both Ryle and Armstrong present some problems for dualism. Ryle presents what is sometimes called "The Problem of Other Minds" on p. 77. This is an epistemological argument against dualism (i.e., one having to do with knowledge). Armstrong presents a host of arguments. In section (a), he discusses an argument based on the idea that it seems that we ascribe both mental and physical properties to the same object. (But Armstrong thinks that the dualist has a good reply to this argument.) In section (b), Armstrong discusses what could be called "The Problem of Individuation" for dualism. In section (c), Armstrong discusses problems for how the dualist might account for the origin of the mind. In section (d), Armstrong discusses problems for the dualistic thesis that the mind and body enter into two-way causal interaction (he calls this thesis 'Interactionism').
one of these five arguments against dualism. Treat it as an argument
against CD (the theory found on Handout 8). Extract, Explain,
and Evaluate this argument. (If you
choose Armstrong's first argument (the one in section (a)), discuss, in your Evaluate step, how the defender of CD would reply to the argument).
* The technical term 'CD' will appear in your argument. Be sure to define 'CD', as well as all the other technical terms that you will use to define 'CD'.
Your typed, single-spaced answer is due at the beginning of class on Thursday, November 8.
I encourage you to work together in groups on this one. I'm sure it will help to discuss it with others. HOWEVER, you must write up and turn in your own version of the answer.