** Logic** is the study of
correct reasoning.

- In logic, we try to separate the good inferences from the bad ones.

A ** statement** is a sentence that describes
the world as being a certain way.

- Statements are either true or false.

Examples of
statements: |
Examples of sentences that are
not statements: |

'The earth is round.' | 'What time is it?' |

'The earth is flat.' | 'Does God exist?' |

'God exists.' | 'Cool, dude!' |

'I hope that God exists.' | 'Holy @#$%!' |

'Abortion is wrong.' | 'Tell me what time it is.' |

'Some people believe that abortion is wrong.' | 'Close the door.' |

A statement is ** true** when the world
actually is the way the statement says the world is.

An ** argument** is a sequence of statements,
the last of which (the conclusion) is supposed to follow from the others (the
premises).

A ** valid argument** is one with the following
property:

- Said another way: an argument is

validwhen it is impossible for its premises to be true and its conclusion false.- We said above that the conclusion of an argument is

supposed tofollow from the premises. To say that an argument is valid is to say that the conclusionreally doesfollow from the premises.- A valid argument does not require that any of premises or the conclusion be true.

An argument is ** sound** when it is valid and
all of its premises are true.

- So all sound arguments are valid, but not all valid arguments are sound.

*Some Common Valid Argument Forms*

Modus
Ponens (MP) |
Multiple Modus
Ponens (MMP) | |

1. If P, then Q | 1. P | 1. P |

2. P | 2. If P, then Q | 2. If P, then Q |

3. Therefore, Q | 3. Therefore, Q | 3. If Q, then R |

4. Therefore, R | ||

Modus
Tollens (MT) |
Multiple Modus
Tollens (MMT) | |

1. If P, then Q. | 1. If P, then Q. | |

2. not-Q | 2. If Q, then R. | |

3. Therefore, not-P. | 3. not-R | |

4. Therefore, not-P. | ||

Disjunctive
Syllogism (DS) |
Categorical
Syllogism | |

1. P or Q | 1. P or Q | 1. All A's are B. |

2. not-P | 2. not-Q | 2. x is an A. |

3. Therefore, Q | 3. Therefore, P | 3. Therefore, x is B. |

*Some Sample Valid
Arguments*

1. All men are mortal.

2. Socrates is a man.

3.
Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

1. A fetus is a person.

2. If a fetus is a person, then
abortion is wrong.

3. Therefore, abortion is wrong.

1. All cats are toaster ovens.

2. Heathwood is a
cat.

3. Therefore, Heathwood is a toaster oven.

1. If Lincoln is alive, then Lincoln survived his
assassination attempt.

2. Lincoln did not survive his assassination
attempt.

3. Therefore, Lincoln is not alive.

1. If there is life on Mars, then there is extraterrestrial
life.

2. There is life on Mars.

3. Therefore, there is extraterrestrial
life.

1. Either Jack lives in Northampton or he lives in
Amherst.

2. Jack does not live in Amherst.

3. Therefore, Jack lives in
Northampton.

*Some Sample Invalid Arguments*

1. The environment is important.

2. Therefore, everyone
should recycle.

1. All apples are fruits.

2. The thing in my hand is a
fruit.

3. Therefore, the thing in my hand is an apple.

1. If John is a communist, then John opposes the status
quo.

2. John opposes the status quo.

3. Therefore, John is a
communist.

1. If O.J. was found guilty, then O.J. did it.

2. O.J.
was not found guilty.

3. Therefore, O.J. did not do it.