Morphology
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Characteristic of Siouan morphology evident in Omaha-Ponca are first person, second person, first + second person (inclusive), and third person pronominal categories indicated with prefixes which combine in limited ways with a plural or augment enclitic, i.e., only the inclusive, second, and third persons can be pluralized.   The first cannot.  Under limited circumstances the inclusive can be unpluralized. 

The Siouan opposition of long (regular) and short (irregular or syncopated) agent pronominals is extensively attested, along with a range of morphophonemic interactions of pronominals and with stems, and dative, suus, and reflexive/reciprocal markers with stems.  Typical Siouan patterns of productive derivation of instrumental verb stems and dative, suus, and reflexive/reciprocal verbs stems occur.  

As usual in the Mississippi Valley group, there is a special third person plural object concord.  As typical outside Dakotan, this is a specialized use of the prefix wa-.

There are verbs stems that infix all of the pronominals, and a class of verb stems, comprising mainly the so-called locative forms, that infix only some of the pronominals, though the details of the latter class are rather different in Omaha-Ponca from Dakotan. 

There are several patterns of verb compounding, some productive, some lexical. 

There is a morphological causative that closely parallels the Dakotan pattern.   Alienably and inalienably possessed nouns are distinguished.  (In fact, there are several possessive constructions, depending on the nature of the possessing relationship.) 

Inflecting Verbs

Regular Active

naN?aN' 'to hear something'

a-naN'?aN I heard it aN-naN'?aN=i we heard it
dha-naN'?aN you heard it
naN?aN=i he/she heard it

Ga-Instrumental Active

gase' 'to cut something with a blow'

a-a'se I cut it aN-a'sa=i we cut it
dha-a'se you cut it
gasa'=i he/she cut it

Type 1 H-Stem Active

(a)hi' 'to arrive there'
With a pluralizing prefix a- in plural/proximate forms.

p-hi' I arrived there aNg-a'-hi=i we arrived there
s^-i' you arrived there
a-hi'=i he/she arrived there

Type 2 H-Stem Active

e=e' 'to say ...'; stem e' in third person; stem dhaN' in the inclusive person

e=he' I said ... [aN-dhaN'=i we said ...]
e=s^-e' you said ...
[a'=i he/she said ...]

?-Stem Active

?iN 'to carry something on the back'

m-iN' I carried it aN-?iN'=i we carried it
z^-iN' you carried it
?iN'=i he/she carried it

Dh-Stem Active

dhathe' 'to eat something'

b-dhathe I ate it aN-dha'tha=i we ate it
(s^)-na'the you ate it
dhatha'=i he/she ate it

Mixed ?/dh-Stem Active

dhiNkhe' 'the (animate, sitting, nonsubject)'
This form also has an irregular stem vowel change.

m-iNkhe' I the
(s^)-niNkhe'(=s^e) you the (s^)-naNkha' you all the
dhiNkhe' he/she the dhaNkha' they the

B-Stem Active

baghu' 'to write something'

p-pa'ghu I wrote it aN-ba'ghu.=i we wrote it
s^-pa'ghu you wrote it
baghu'=i he/she wrote it

D-Stem Active

daNbe' 'to see something'
Doubly inflected, regularly and as a d-stem, in modern Omaha.  The pleonastic regular inflection was absent in the 1890s.

a-t-taN'be I saw it aN-daN'ba=i we saw it
dha-s^-taN'be you saw it
daNba'=i he/she saw it

Type 1 G-Stem Active

gaN'=dha 'to wish for, want something'
Two inflected coverbs, the first the g-stem, the second an dh-stem.

k-kaN'=b-dha I heard it aN-gaN=dha=i we heard it
s^-kaN'=(s^)-na you heard it
gaN'=dha=i he/she heard it

Type 2 G-Stem Active

ga'ghe 'to do (something); to make (something); to magically impersonate (something)'

p-pa'ghe. I did it aN-ga'gha=i we did it
s^-ka'ghe you did it
gagha'=i he/she did it

Regular Stative

ttaN'ga 'to be big'

aN-ttaN'ga I am big wa-ttaN'ga we are big
dhi-ttaN'ga you are big
ttaN'ga he/she is big

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs combine active and stative inflection.  The regular pattern is as follows. 

naN?aN 'to hear something/someone'

S1

S2

S3

S12

A1

---

wi-naN'?aN a-naN'?aN

---

A2

aN-dha'-naN?aN

---

dha-naN'?aN wa-dha'-naN?aN=i

A3

aN-naN'?aN=i dhi-naN'?aN=i naN?aN'=i wa-naN'?aN=i

A12

---

aN-dhi'-naN?aN=i aN-naN'?aN=i

---

Notice that the regular active paradigm is in the S3 column (forms with a third person object), while the regular stative paradigm is in A3 row (forms with a third person subject).  The A1S2 form (I ... you) uses a special portmanteau pronoun wi-.   The remaining forms feature first person or inclusive pronouns preceding second persons, combining forms from the active and stative paradigms.   There are no forms combining two pronouns that are both first person, both second person, both inclusive person, or first person and inclusive person.  These combinations are handled with the reflexive paradigm. 

Omitted Details of Inflection

This brief inflectional sketch omits transitive forms of non-regular actives.  It omits stems in wa-, the third person plural stative pronominal and detransitivized stem formant.  It does not deal with the plural/proximate enclitic =(b)(i) except in passing.  It does not discuss the effects of single or multiple locative prefixes, pronoun-infixing stems, dative inflection, suus and reflexive/reciprocal inflection, causatives, negatives, futures, punctual/inceptives, progressives,  etc., etc.

Historical Developments Characteristic of Dhegiha

Dhegiha generally is characterized by the loss of g in the 'by striking' instrumental ga- in first person and second person forms, the development of the compound locative *iro- as *oro-, and a few other oddities of inflectional morphophonemics and morphosyntax.  Unique to Omaha-Ponca is the pattern of inflection of the dative stems, which involves characteristic transformations of the corresponding (inflected) simple transitive form.  The pattern in the other Dhegiha languages is quite different.

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