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<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
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<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
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<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
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To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
{{borderless{
|width:25em;M. D. Betterton|~|
|[[Physics Department|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/Web/index.html]] |mdb [at] colorado [dot] edu|
|390 UCB |303-735-6135 |
|[[University of Colorado at Boulder|http://www.colorado.edu/]] |fax: 303-492-2998 |
|Boulder, CO 80309| |
}}}
For more about my background, see my [[CV|Curriculum vitae]].
For more about my current work, see information about my [[Papers|Recent Publications]], [[Research]], and [[Teaching]].
For information about working in my group, see [[Working with me]].
* L. E. Hough, A. Schwabe, M. A. Glaser, J. R. ~McIntosh, and M. D. Betterton, "Microtubule depolymerization by the kinesin-8 motor Kip3p: a mathematical model," //Biophysical Journal// ''96'', 3050 (2009). [[Download|Hough2009.pdf]].

* D. ~McDonald, L. Waterbury, R. Knight, and M. D. Betterton, "Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics," //Biology Direct// ''3'', 49 (2008). [[Download|McDonald2008.pdf]].

*A. Garai, D. Chowdhury, and M. D. Betterton, "A two-state model for helicase translocation and unwinding of nucleic acids," //Physical Review E// ''77'', 061910 pp. 1-9 (2008). [[Download|Garai2008.pdf]]. 

* M. Lladser, M. D. Betterton, and R. Knight, "Multiple pattern matching: A Markov chain approach", //Journal of Mathematical Biology// ''56'', 51-92 (2008). [[Download|Lladser2008.pdf]]. 

* Y. Seol, J. Li, P. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, "Elasticity of short DNA molecules: theory and experiment for contour lengths of 0.6-7 micrometers", //Biophysical Journal// ''93'', 4360-4373 (2007). [[Download|Seol2007.pdf]]. Selected as a [[New and Notable|Liphardt2007.pdf]] paper by the //Biophysical Journal//.

* A. R. Hieb, W. A. Halsey, M. D. Betterton, T. T. Perkins, J. F. Kugel, and J. A. Goodrich, "TFIIA changes the conformation of the DNA in TBP/TATA complexes and increases their kinetic stability", //Journal of Molecular Biology// ''372'', 619-632 (2007). [[Download|Hieb2007.pdf]].

* J. Li, P. C. Nelson, and M. D. Betterton, "Entropic elasticity of DNA with a permanent kink", //Macromolecules// ''39'', 8816-8821 (2006). [[Download|Li2006.pdf]].

* D. Clarke, M. D. Betterton, and X. Liu, "Systems theory of Smad signaling", //IEE Proceedings Systems Biology// ''153'', 412-424 (2006). [[Download|Clarke2006.pdf]].

* Micah Hamady, M. D. Betterton, and Rob Knight, "Using the nucleotide substitution rate matrix to detect horizontal gene transfer", //BMC Bioinformatics// ''7'', 476 (2006). [[Download|Hamady2006.pdf]].

* Vance Bergeron, Charles Berger, and M. D. Betterton, "Controlled irradiative formation of penitentes: shedding light on ablation structures", //Physical Review Letters// ''96'', 098502 (2006). [[Download|Bergeron2006.pdf]].

* J. Downer, J. Sevinsky, N. G. Ahn, K. Resing, and M. D. Betterton, "Incorporating expression data in metabolic modeling: a case study of lactate dehydrogenase," //Journal of Theoretical Biology// ''240'', 464-474 (2006). [[Download|Downer2006.pdf]].

* M. D. Betterton and Frank Julicher, "Velocity and processivity of helicase unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids," //Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter // ''17'', ~S3851-S3869 (2005). [[Download|Betterton2005b.pdf]].

* M. D. Betterton and Frank Julicher, "Opening of nucleic-acid double strands by helicases. Active versus passive opening", //Physical Review E// ''71'', 011904 (2005). [[Download|Betterton2005a.pdf]]. 

* M. D. Betterton and Frank Julicher, "A motor that makes its own track: Helicase unwinding of DNA", //Physical Review Letters// ''91'', 258103 (2003). [[Download|Betterton2003.pdf]]. 

* M. D. Betterton and Michael P. Brenner, "Collapsing bacterial cylinders", //Physical Review E// ''64'', 061904 (2001). [[Download|Betterton2001b.pdf]]. 

* M. D. Betterton, "Formation of structure in snowfields motivated by penitentes, suncups, and dirt cones", Phys. Rev. E 63, 056129 (2001). [[Download|Betterton2001a.pdf]].

* M. D. Betterton and Michael P. Brenner, "Electrostatic edge instability of lipid membranes", //Physical Review Letters// ''82'', 1598 (1999). [[Download|Betterton1999.pdf]].


!Learning about biophysics
* [[What is Biophysics?|http://www.biophysics.org/education/]]<br>A one-page overview of the field of biophysics, from the educational web page of the Biophysical Society.
* [[Select topics in Biophysics|http://www.biophysics.org/education/topics.htm]]<br>A listing of major fields of research in biophysics, with links to tutorial material in the different areas. Includes information on research problems, types of biomolecules, and techniques, from the educational web page of the Biophysical Society.
!Biophysics textbooks
* //Biological Physics// by P. C. Nelson, 2004. <br> An excellent textbook aimed at physics undergraduate or graduate students who don't necessarily know much biology. The book gives biological background and introduces physics ideas such as diffusion, low Reynolds number fluid dynamics, entropic forces, and self assembly that are important in biophysics. The selection of biological problems is good.
* //Mechanics of Motor Proteins and the Cytoskeleton// by J. Howard, 2001. <br> A book aimed at both biologists and physicists. It focuses on cytoskeletal filaments - biological polymers important for cell structure - and motor proteins that move on the cytoskeletal filaments. An excellent first section on physical principles introduces basic physics and includes many estimates of forces and energies important for motor proteins. The next two sections, on the cytoskeleton and on motor proteins, contain biological background, structural information, experimental results, and biophysical models.
In fall 2011 I'm co-teaching [[Foundations of Quantitative Biology|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys7810/phys7810_fa11/]] as part of the new quantitative biology graduate program. This program has the option of a biophysics focus. In fall 2009 I taught a [[Biophysics course]], which will be repeated someday. 

There are several places you can learn more about biophysics and quantitative biology research at ~CU-Boulder.
* The [[Biophysics Supergroup|http://biophysics.colorado.edu/index.php/seminars]] seminar occurs approximately once a month on a Monday evening. Local speakers discuss their research; pizza is served.
* The [[Molecular Biophysics Program|http://spot.colorado.edu/%7Efalke/biophysics/]] is an ~NIH-funded biophysics graduate training program. The program web page includes a list of [[faculty|http://spot.colorado.edu/%7Efalke/biophysics/Faculty.html]] doing research in biophysics and information about the biophysics [[certificate program|http://spot.colorado.edu/%7Efalke/biophysics/Certificate.html]] for graduate students. 
* Biophysics talks are given in many different seminar series. In addition to the Biophysics Supergroup, the seminars to watch are:
** The [[Biochemistry seminar|http://chem.colorado.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=312&Itemid=158]], Wednesdays at 4 pm in CIRES auditorium.
** The [[MCDB seminar|http://mcdb.colorado.edu/mcdb-events-listing/list.html/]], Thursdays at 4 pm in MCDB ~A2B70.
** The [[Physical Chemistry colloquium|http://jila.colorado.edu/calendar]], Fridays at 4 pm in the JILA auditorium.
** The [[Physics colloquium|http://phys.colorado.edu/upcoming-events]], Wednesdays at 4pm in Duane ~G1B20.
** The [[Condensed Matter brown bag seminar|http://spot.colorado.edu/~reznikd/cmseminar_fall11/]], Thursdays at noon in the Duane 11th floor lounge.
* The [[Bioinformatics Supergroup|http://bayes.colorado.edu/bioinfo/]] analogous to the Biophysics Supergroup, but with a focus on quantitative experiments and data analysis in biology. For more information on bioinformatics at CU, see the [[bioinformatics resources|http://bayes.colorado.edu/bioinfo/student_resources.html]] page.
* The [[Colorado Biofrontiers Institute|http://cimb.colorado.edu/]] promotes interdisciplinary research and education in biology.
For more information, see the [[course web page|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys4810/phys4810_fa09/]].
!!Physics 4810/7810: Biophysics
Instructor: Meredith Betterton

The physics department will offer a biophysics course for the first time in the Fall 2009 semester. Please register if you are interested in taking this course - we need to meet the minimum enrollment for the course to be offered.

!!!Course description 
This course will give an introduction to the physics of living systems for students with a physics, engineering, or chemistry background, developing the biology background as required. Topics will focus on molecular biophysics and will include the properties of biomolecules, physics of random walks and diffusion, low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics, entropy and free energy of biomolecules, entropic forces, and biological self assembly. Selected biophysics applications will be discussed based on student interest, potentially including polymer elasticity, cooperative transitions in proteins, enzymes, molecular motors, transport across membranes, and nerve impulses.

!!!Prerequisites 
Prereqs for 4810: PHYS 2210 or instructor permission. PHYS 4230 helpful but not required. Prereqs for 7810: Undergraduate statistical mechanics or instructor permission. PHYS 7230 helpful but not required.
M. D. Betterton
Associate Professor
Physics Department
University of Colorado at Boulder

!!Positions
* Associate Professor, Physics Department, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2010 - present
* Visiting Scholar, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 2010 - 2011
* Visiting Scholar, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 2010 - 2011
* Assistant Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2003 - 2010
** Physics Department, 2006 - 2010
** Applied Mathematics Department, 2003 - 2005
* Postdoc/Courant Instructor, Courant Institute, New York University, 2001 - 2002
* Chateaubriand Postdoctoral Fellow, Institut Curie and Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, 2000 - 2001

!!Education
* ~PhD in physics, Harvard University, 2000
** Thesis advisors: Michael Brenner and Daniel Fisher
** Thesis topics: Instabilities of charged membranes, Singularity formation in bacterial chemotaxis, and theory of structure formation on snow surfaces
* AB in physics //magna cum laude//, Princeton University, 1994
** Senior thesis advisor: Albert Libchaber
** Senior thesis topic: Microtubules and vesicles

!!Honors and awards
*NSF CAREER Award, 2009
*Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, 2004
*Junior Faculty Development Award, Council on Research and Creative Work, University of Colorado at Boulder, 2004
*Chateaubriand Fellowship, 2000
*NSF Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Fellowship, 2000 (declined)
*Burroughs Wellcome Fellowship, Program in Mathematics and Molecular Biology, 1998
*American Association of University Women American Fellowship, 1998 (declined)
*Harvard University Certificate of Distinction in Teaching, 1998
*Harold T. White Prize for Excellence in the Teaching of Introductory Physics, Harvard University Department of Physics, 1998
*Senior Thesis Research Prize, Princeton University Department of Physics, 1994
*Phi Beta Kappa, 1994
*Sigma Xi, 1994
[[About me]] [[News]] [[Recent Publications]] [[Biophysics at CU]] [[Teaching]]
!!Current group members
* ''Tatiana Kuriabova'', postdoc.
** ~PhD: Physics, UCLA, 2008.
!!Former group members
* ''Jinyu Li'', grad student, Applied Math, 2003-2010. 
**MS/MA: Applied Math and MCD Biology, ~CU-Boulder, 2007.
**~PhD: Applied Math, ~CU-Boulder, 2010.
** Currently postdoc with Scott Powers, Cold Spring Harbor lab.
* ''Anne Schwabe'', grad student, Biochemistry, 2007-2008.
** Currently grad student with Frank Bruggeman, Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science Amsterdam ([[CWI|http://www.cwi.nl/en/]]). 
* ''Maribeth Oscamou'', grad student, Applied Math, 2005-2007. 
**Currently grad student with Manuel Lladser and Rob Knight, ~CU-Boulder.
* ''Laura Waterbury'', undergrad and grad student, Applied Math, 2004-2007. 
**BS/MS: Applied Math, ~CU-Boulder, 2007. 
**Currently working at Fair Isaac.
* ''William Heuett'', postdoc, 2006. 
**Currently postdoc in Periwal Lab, Laboratory of Biological Modeling, NIDDK, NIH. 
** [[Homepage|http://lbm.niddk.nih.gov/heuettw/wjh/Home.html]].
* ''Talea Mayo'', undergrad, 2005. 
**Currently grad student at ~UT-Austin.
* ''Elizabeth Siewert'', research associate, 2004-2005. 
**Currently grad student in Biostatistics, UCHSC.
* ''Joshua Downer'', postdoc, 2003-2005. 
**Currently working at Irrational Games.
GTDTW [[Version 2.2.4|http://shared.snapgrid.com/gtd_tiddlywiki.html#RevisionHistory]]

[[TiddlyWiki|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]] is published by Jeremy Ruston at Osmosoft under a BSD open source license.

[[GTD TiddlyWiki|http://snapgrid.com]] is a modification by Nathan Bowers at Snapgrid under the same license terms.
[[About me]] [[News]][[Research]] [[Teaching]] [[Publications|Recent Publications]] [[Biophysics at CU]] [[Biophysics Resources]]  [[Group members]] [[Working with me]]
!!!9/2011: Butcher symposium will take place November 11

On the 11th day of the 11th month of the 11th year, the [[Butcher Symposium|http://biofrontiers.colorado.edu/butcher/symposium]] on interdisciplinary bio-related work across CU will be held. Register [[here|http://biofrontiers.colorado.edu/butcher/symposium/registration-and-abstract-submission]].

!!!9/2011: Biophysics and soft-matter theory group meetings restarting this year

This fall the group meetings in biophysics/soft-matter theory are restarting, meeting biweekly on Fridays. We're expanding this year to include groups from several departments, including the groups of Matt Glaser (physics), Joel Eaves (chemistry), and Arthi Jayaraman (chemical engineering). If you're interested in participating, please contact me for more information.

!!!8/2011: New graduate course in quantitative biology

In fall 2011 I'm developing and teaching a new course (in collaboration with Tom Cech), [[Foundations of Quantitative Biology|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys7810/phys7810_fa11/]]. This is a core course in the new [[quantitative biology graduate program|http://cimb.colorado.edu/iq-biology/]].

!!!8/2011: Back from sabbatical

I've returned from sabbatical and am on campus as usual.

!!!6/2011: New graduate student joins the group

Welcome to new graduate student ~Hui-Shun Kuan, a ~PhD student in Chemistry who is now working with me.

!!!12/2010: New interdisciplinary quantitative biology graduate program

~CU-Boulder is starting a new graduate program in interdisciplinary quantitative biology in fall 2011. There's more information [[here|http://cimb.colorado.edu/iq-biology/]], including a handy [[online brochure|http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/b1a5dc2e#/b1a5dc2e/1]]. The application deadline is January 5.


[[Old News]]
!!!12/2010: Interesting workshop next summer at Aspen
 
Next summer the Aspen Center for Physics will run a program on [[Computation and Collective Behavior in Biological Systems|http://physics.bu.edu/~pankajm/aspen.html]], June 12-July 3 2011.

[>img[jmatchemcover.gif]]
!!!11/2010: Cover paper

Our paper was featured on the [[inside cover|http://blogs.rsc.org/jm/2010/11/17/themed-issue-on-modelling-of-materials-online-now/]] and selected as a [[Hot Article|http://blogs.rsc.org/jm/2010/11/11/hot-articles-liquid-crystalline-linear-aggregates-and-bimetallic-nipt-hollow-spheres/]] in the //Journal of Materials Chemistry//. The paper is T. Kuriabova, M. D. Betterton, and M. A. Glaser, "Linear aggregation and liquid-crystalline order: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and analytic theory." [[Link to article|http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2010/JM/C0JM02355H]].
{{borderless{
|width:150px;!Semester |width:125px;!Course |width:500px;!Name |
|Spring 2010|[[Phys 1240|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1240/phys1240_sp10/]]|Physics of Sound and Music |
|Fall 2009|[[Phys 4810/7810|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys4810/phys4810_fa09/]] |Introduction to Biophysics |
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|Fall 2003|[[APPM 3310|http://amath.colorado.edu/courses/3310/2003fall]]|Matrix Methods |
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* T. Kuriabova, M. D. Betterton, and M. A. Glaser, "Linear aggregation and liquid-crystalline order: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and analytic theory,"  //Journal of Materials Chemistry// ''20'', 10366-10383 (2010). [[Download|Kuriabova2010.pdf]]. Selected as a [[Hot Article|http://blogs.rsc.org/jm/2010/11/11/hot-articles-liquid-crystalline-linear-aggregates-and-bimetallic-nipt-hollow-spheres/]] by the //Journal of Materials Chemistry//.

* L. E. Hough, A. Schwabe, M. A. Glaser, J. R. ~McIntosh, and M. D. Betterton, "Microtubule depolymerization by the kinesin-8 motor Kip3p: a mathematical model," //Biophysical Journal// ''96'', 3050 (2009). [[Download|Hough2009.pdf]].

* D. ~McDonald, L. Waterbury, R. Knight, and M. D. Betterton, "Activating and inhibiting connections in biological network dynamics," //Biology Direct// ''3'', 49 (2008). [[Download|McDonald2008.pdf]].

*A. Garai, D. Chowdhury, and M. D. Betterton, "A two-state model for helicase translocation and unwinding of nucleic acids," //Physical Review E// ''77'', 061910 pp. 1-9 (2008). [[Download|Garai2008.pdf]]. 

* M. Lladser, M. D. Betterton, and R. Knight, "Multiple pattern matching: A Markov chain approach", //Journal of Mathematical Biology// ''56'', 51-92 (2008). [[Download|Lladser2008.pdf]]. 

* Y. Seol, J. Li, P. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, "Elasticity of short DNA molecules: theory and experiment for contour lengths of 0.6-7 micrometers", //Biophysical Journal// ''93'', 4360-4373 (2007). [[Download|Seol2007.pdf]]. Selected as a [[New and Notable|Liphardt2007.pdf]] paper by the //Biophysical Journal//.

* A. R. Hieb, W. A. Halsey, M. D. Betterton, T. T. Perkins, J. F. Kugel, and J. A. Goodrich, "TFIIA changes the conformation of the DNA in TBP/TATA complexes and increases their kinetic stability", //Journal of Molecular Biology// ''372'', 619-632 (2007). [[Download|Hieb2007.pdf]].

* J. Li, P. C. Nelson, and M. D. Betterton, "Entropic elasticity of DNA with a permanent kink", //Macromolecules// ''39'', 8816-8821 (2006). [[Download|Li2006.pdf]].

* D. Clarke, M. D. Betterton, and X. Liu, "Systems theory of Smad signaling", //IEE Proceedings Systems Biology// ''153'', 412-424 (2006). [[Download|Clarke2006.pdf]].

* Micah Hamady, M. D. Betterton, and Rob Knight, "Using the nucleotide substitution rate matrix to detect horizontal gene transfer", //BMC Bioinformatics// ''7'', 476 (2006). [[Download|Hamady2006.pdf]].

* Vance Bergeron, Charles Berger, and M. D. Betterton, "Controlled irradiative formation of penitentes: shedding light on ablation structures", //Physical Review Letters// ''96'', 098502 (2006). [[Download|Bergeron2006.pdf]].

* J. Downer, J. Sevinsky, N. G. Ahn, K. Resing, and M. D. Betterton, "Incorporating expression data in metabolic modeling: a case study of lactate dehydrogenase," //Journal of Theoretical Biology// ''240'', 464-474 (2006). [[Download|Downer2006.pdf]]. 

For older work, see [[All Publications]].
My research interests are in biophysics, soft condensed matter physics, and systems biology/bioinformatics. 

Some information about my recent projects:

!!Molecular biophysics
# ''Unwinding of nucleic acids by helicase proteins''. <br>A helicase is a molecular motor that separates double-stranded nucleic acids (such as DNA and RNA). Helicases are important because of their role in processing  nucleic acids, including DNA copying and damage repair. These motors are also a useful model system to study how a molecular motor can move an obstacle. Our work has focused on the coupling of helicase translocation to strand separation, particularly passive versus active unwinding. /%For more information, see [[Helicase unwinding of dsNA]].%/
# ''DNA elasticity''. <br>The stretching behavior of individual double-stranded DNA molecules has been studied for many years, but the standard theoretical model of stretched DNA was not formulated to handle the relatively short lengths of DNA used in many single-molecule experiments today. Our theory-experiment collaboration has found how the usual solution of the worm-like chain model (WLC) deviates from experimental data for short molecules; we then developed an improved solution to the model that better agrees with experiments. Extensions of the model to include the effects of single ~DNA-distorting proteins suggest that these binding/bending events can be used to estimate the bend angle induced by a deformation.  /%For more information, see [[DNA elasticity]].%/

!!Biochemical network dynamics
# ''Theory of ~TGF-beta signaling dynamics''. <br>~TGF-beta is a protein that can bind to receptor molecules on the surface of a cell and activate a series of chemical reactions inside the cell. The results of activating the intracellular ~TGF-beta signaling network can include changes in cell growth and differentiation; defects in the signaling pathway occur in many cancers. Our theory-experiment collaboration has developed a minimal model of canonical ~TGF-beta signaling. Our goal is to understand which features of the pathway control the accumulation of downstream proteins called Smads in the nucleus, where the Smads can alter expression of target genes. /%For more information, see [[TGF-beta signaling]].%/
# ''Dynamics of biochemical networks and signaling behavior''. <br>Biochemical networks such as signaling networks control many aspects of cell behavior. The topology - the pattern of connections between different molecules - has been mapped for many biochemical networks. The connections between network topology and the dynamics of the system are much less well understood. We are using a toy model of biochemical network dynamics to study the connection between topological features, dynamics, and robustness in biochemical networks. /%For more information, see [[Network dynamics]].%/
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Physics Department, University of Colorado at Boulder
Meredith Betterton
http://spot.colorado.edu/~mdb
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!Tiddler display rules /%================================================================== %/
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/*{{{*/
#displayArea {
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 margin: .75em 0 0 17em;
}

.tiddler {
 margin: 0 0 1em 0;
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 border-bottom: .25em solid #555;
 background: #fff;
}

.title {
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 font-weight: bold;
 color: #900;
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margin: .1em;
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.viewer a:hover {
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 border-left: 1px solid #111;
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 padding: .3em;
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.viewer pre{
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}

.viewer ul {
 padding-left: 30px;
}

.viewer ol {
 padding-left: 30px;
}
ul{
list-style-type: asquare;
}
ol{ 
 list-style-type: decimal;
}

ol ol{ 
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}

ol ol ol{ 
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}

.viewer li {
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}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {
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 margin: 5px 0;
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.viewer h2 {font-size: 1.2em;}
.viewer h3 {font-size: 1.1em;}
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.viewer h5 { font-size: .9em;}
.viewer h6 { font-size: .8em;}

.viewer table {
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 font-size: 1em;
 margin: 10px 0;
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}

.viewer td {
 border: 1px solid #aaa;
 padding: 0 0;
}

.viewer caption {
 padding: 3px;
}

.viewer hr {
 border: none;
 border-top: dotted 1px #777;
 height: 1px;
 color: #777;
 margin: 7px 0;
}

.viewer
{
 margin: 1em 1em 2em 0.2em;
 padding: .5em 0;
 border-top: 1px solid #ccc;
}

.highlight {
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 background: #ffe72f;
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.editor {
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.editor input, .editor textarea {
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}

.editor textarea {
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input:focus, textarea:focus
{
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 border: 1px solid #000;
}
.footer
{
 padding: .5em 0;
 margin: .5em 0;
 border-top: 1px solid #ddd;
 color: #555;
 text-align: center; 
}
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/*{{{*/
body{
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}

#contentWrapper
{
/* _width: 770px; CSS UNDERSCORE HACK FOR PROPER WIN/IE DISPLAY */
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}

#messageArea{
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body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
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h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

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code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

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#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
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#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
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.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0em 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
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.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

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#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0em 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
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#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 .3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

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.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0em 0em 0em 0em; margin:0.4em 0em 0.2em 0em;}
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.wizardFooter .status {padding:0em 0.4em 0em 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em 0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0em; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em 0.2em 0.2em 0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0em;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0em 0em 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0em 0em 0em 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

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#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0em 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0em 1em;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0em 0.25em; padding:0em 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0px 3px 0px 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0em; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0px; padding-bottom:0px;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px 1px 0px;}

.sparkline {line-height:1em;}
.sparktick {outline:0;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em 0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0em; right:0em;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em 0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em 0.1em 0.1em 0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; margin:0em 3em 0em 3em; padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
/*}}}*/
<<timeline>>
I'm currently teaching Phys 7810, [[Foundations of Quantitative Biology|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys7810/phys7810_fa11/]] (co-taught with Tom Cech).

In past semesters I have taught [[Other Courses]]. My [[FCQ results|http://fcq.colorado.edu/scripts/broker.exe?_program=fcqlib.fcqdata11.sas&camp=BD&iname=betterton&fyr=2003]] are available online.
<!--{{{-->
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There are positions available doing research with me for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs. Contact me for more information:
* If you are a current undergrad or grad student at ~CU-Boulder, come speak to me in person.
* If you are considering grad school at ~CU-Boulder, you should contact me after applying to the physics department graduate program. [[Click here|http://www.colorado.edu/physics/Web/education/grad/applying/index.html]] for application information. 
* If you are interested in doing a postdoc with me, contact me and include your cv.