Visual Communication Bibliography

-A Working Draft-

I. Basic Visual Communication References, Textbooks

Barnhurst, Kevin G. "Curriculum and Instruction in Visual Communication." Journalism Educator. 46 (1991): 4-8.

Barnhurst, Kevin G. (Ed.) "Visual Communication and Teaching." A special issue of Journalism Educator, 46 (Spring 1991).

Berger, Arthur Asa. Seeing is Believing: An Introduction to Visual communication. (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1989).

Curtiss, Deborah Pratt. Introduction to Visual Literacy: A Guide to the Visual Arts and Communication. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).

Davis, Howard and Paul Walton, (Eds.) Language, Image and Media. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983).

Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy. (Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 1973).

Fransecky, Roger B. and John L. Debes. Visual Literacy: A Way to Learn--A Way to Teach. (Washington: Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 1972).

Kolers, Paul A., M. F. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma. (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language: Vol. 2 (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 113-124.

Lester, Paul Martin. Visual Communication: Images with Messages. (Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1995).

Messaris, Paul. Visual "Literacy": Image, Mind & Reality. (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1994).

Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: (Educational Technology Publications, 1994).

Morgan, John and Peter Welton. See What I Mean? (London: Edward Arnold, 1992).

Pettersson, Rune. Visual Information. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1993).

Schamber, Linda. "Visual Literacy in Mass Communications: A Proposal for Educators," ASSOCIATION FOR EDUCATION IN JOURNALISMMC Conference, San Antonio, 1987.

Thompson, Philip and Peter Davenport. The Dictionary of Visual Language. (London: Bergstrom and Boil Books Ltd, 1980).

Wilde, Judith and Richard Wilde. Visual Literacy: A Conceptual Approach to Graphic Problem Solving. (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1991).

Wilde, Richard. Problems: Solutions. Visual Thinking for Graphic Communicators. (New York: Van Nostrand, 1986).

Wileman, Ralph. Visual Communicating. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1983).

Wileman, Ralph. Exercises in Visual Thinking. (New York: Hastings House, 1980).

II. Visual Communication: General Theory/Philosophy

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. (London: Penguin Books, 1977)S.

Berger, John. About Looking. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980).

Goodman, Nelson. Languages of Art: An Approach to the Theory of Symbols. (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1976).

Gross, Larry. "Sol Worth and the Study of Visual Communications," Studies in Visual Communication , 6:3 (1980): 2-19.

Gross, Larry, Sol Worth: Studying Visual Communication. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981).

Hochberg, Julian. "Some of the Things That Pictures Are." In Calvin Nodine and Dennis Fisher (Eds.) Views of Pictorial Representation: Making, Perceiving and Interpreting. (New York: Praeger, 1979.

Hudak, G. "On the Limits of Visual Communication: A Case Study." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 7:1 (1987): 28-51.

Ingle, David J., M. A. Goodale, and R. J. W. Mansfield. (Eds.) Analysis of Visual Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982).

Ivins, William H. Prints and Visual Communication. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1953).

Moriarty, Sandra. "The Function of Visuals in Mass Communication." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrel G. Beauchamp, and LaVerne W. Miller (Eds.) Visible & Viable. IVLA 1986 Conference Proceedings, 1987.

Pettersson, Rune. "Image Functions." Visual Literacy Review. 20 (February, 1991): 2-3.

II A. Images, Content and Meaning

Akert, Robert U. Photoanalysis: How to Interpret the Hidden Psychological Meaning of Personal Photos. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973).

Craven, George M. Object and Image. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1975.)

Freedberg, David. The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Responses. (Chicago" The University of Chicago Press, 1989)

Gombrich, E.H. "The Visual Image." Scientific American. 227 (September, 1972): 82-96.

Knowlton, John. "On the Definition of A 'Picture'." AV Communication Review. 14 (1966): 157-183.

Kolors, P.A. and W. E. Smythe. "Images, Symbols, and Skills." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 33 (1979): 158-184.

McMahon, C. E. "Images as Motives and Motivators: A Historical Perspective." American Journal of Psychology. 86 (1973): 465-490.

Pettersson, Rune. "Image Format." Visual Literacy Newsletter 17 (1988): 5.

Pettersson, Rune. "Image Formats: The Multidimensional Representation of Reality." EP Journal, (September, 1988): 3-7.

Pettersson, Rune. "interpretation of Image Content." Educational Communications Technology Journal 36:1 (1988): 45-55.

Reed, Stephen K. "Structural Descriptions and the Limitation of Visual Images." Memory and Cognition 2 (April, 1974): 329-336.

Sekula, Allan. "On the Invention of Photographic Meaning." Art Forum. 13 (January 1975): 36-45.

Stonehill, Brian. "The Debate Over 'Ocularcentrism'." Journal of Communication. 45:1 (Winter 1995): 147-152.

II A1. Representation and Realism

Allen, Richard. "Representation, Illusion, and the Cinema." The Cinema Journal. 32 (winter, 1993): 21-48.

Arrel, Douglas. "What Goodman Should Have Said about Representation." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 46 (Fall, 1987): 41-49. Discussion 46 (Summer, 1988): 509-511.

Batchen, Geoffrey. "For an Impossible Realism: An Interview with Victor Burgin." Afterimage. 16 (February 1989): 4-9.

Brand, Myles and Robert M. Harnish (Eds.) The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. (Phoenix, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 1986).

Brook, Donald. "Painting, Photography, and Representation." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 42 (Winter 1983): 171-180.

Dyer, Richard. The Matter of Images: Essays on Representation (New York: Routledge, 1992).

Egan, D. E. and D. D. Grimes-Ferrow. "Differences in Mental Representations Spontaneously Adopted for Reasons." Memory and Cognition. 10 (1982): 297-307.

Eisner, Elliot W. "On the Relationship of Conception to Representation." Art Education. 36:2 (March 1983): 53.

Erdman, Barbara. "See You in the Funnies! An Analysis of Representation." Journal of Visual Literacy. 13:2 (Autumn, 1993): 51-60.

Gibson, J. J. Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays of James J. Gibson. In E. Reed and R. Jones, (Eds.) (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1982).

Goodrich, R. A. "Goodman on Representation and Resemblance." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 28 (Winter, 1988): 48-58.

Grigg, Robert. "Relativism and Pictorial Realism." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 42 (Summer, 1984): 397-408.

Korsmeyer, Carolyn. "Pictorial Assertion." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 43 (spring, 1985): 257-265.

McDonnell, Neil. "Are Pictures Unavoidably Specific?" Synthese 57 (1983): 83-98.

Mitchell, W. J. Thomas. "Realism, Irrealism, and Ideology: A Critique of Nelson Goodman." The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 25 (Spring, 1991): 23-35.

Perkins, D. N. "Pictures and the Real Thing." In P. A. Kolers, M. R. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma (Eds.) Processing Visible Language: Vol. 2 (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 259-278.

Scruton, Roger. "Photography and Representation." Critical Inquiry 7 (Spring 1981): 577-603.

Snodgrass, J. G. "Concepts and Their Surface Representations." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 23 (1984): 3-22.

Snyder, Joel and Neil W. Allen. "Photography, Vision, and Representation." Critical Inquiry 2 (Autumn 1975): 143-169.

Tagg, John. "The Proof of the Picture." Afterimage. 15 (January, 1988): 11-13.

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Rules and Representation: The Virtues of Constancy and Fidelity Put in Perspective." Erkenntniss. 2 (1978): 17-36.

Watzlawich, Paul. How Real is Real? (New York: Vintage Books, 1977).

Weiss, Audrey, Dorothy Mirich and Barbara Wilson. "Prior Exposure to Creatures From a Horror Film: Live Versus Photographic Representations." Communication Research. (September 1993): 41-66.

Zabala, Horacio. "The Image of Duplication: Theoretical Perspective Behind Artistic Production and Viewers' Notions of Reality and Appearance." Leonardo. 25:1 (1992): 47-50.

II A2. Pictorial Representation

Caroll, J. M., J. C. Thomas, and A. Malhotra. "Presentation and Representation in Design Problem-Solving." British Journal of Psychology. 71 (1980): 143-153.

Gombrich, E. H. "Representation and Misrepresentation." Critical Inquiry. 11 (1984): 195-201.

Gombrich, E. H. "Mirror and Map: Theories of Pictorial Representation." Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society. (London, Royal Society, 1975): 119-149.

Gombrich, E. H., Julian Hochberg, and M. Black (Eds.) Art, Perception and Reality. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1972).

Harris, Jonathan. "The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories." Art History. 12 (June, 1989): 247-256.

Hochberg, Julian. "The Representation of Things and People: In E. H. Gombrich, Julian Hochberg, and M. Black (Eds.) Art, Perception and Reality. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1972).

Huckle, Nicholas. "On Representation and Essence: Barthes and Heidegger." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 43 (Spring, 1985): 275-280.

Hurt, J.A. "Assessing Functional Effectiveness of Pictorial Representations Used in Text." Educational communication Technology. 35:2 (1987): 85-94.

Kelter, S., H. Grotzbach, R. Frieheit, B. Hohle, S. Wutzig and E. Diesch. "Object Identification: The Mental Representation of Physical and Conceptual Attributes." Memory and Cognition. 12 (1984): 123-133.

Neander, Karen. "Pictorial Representation: A Matter of Resemblance." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 27 (Summer, 1987): 213-226.

Nichols, Bill. "The Analysis of Representational Images." In Corner, John and Jeremy Hawthorn (Eds.) Communication Studies: An Introductory Reader. 3rd ed. (London: Edward Arnold, 1989).

Peetz, Dieter. "Some Current Philosophical Theories of Pictorial Representation." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 27 (Summer, 1987): 227-237. Discussion. 28 (Summer, 1988): 278-80.

Roupas, T.G. "Information and Pictorial Representation." In D. Perkins and B. Leondar (Eds.) The Arts and Cognition. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

Savedoff, Barbara E. "Transforming Images: Photographs of Representations." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 50 (Spring 1992): 93-106.

Tagg, John. The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988).

Todd, Jennifer. "The Roots of Pictorial Reference." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 39 (1980): 47-58.

Ujlaki, Gabriella. "The Logic of Representation." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 33 (April, 1993): 121-131.

Warburton, Nigel. "Varieties of Photographic Representation: Documentary, Pictorial, and Quasi-Documentary. History of Photography. 15 (Autumn, 1991): 203-210.

Warburton, Nigel. "Photographic Communication." British Journal of Aesthetics 28 (Spring 1988): 173-181.

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Cameras Can't See: Representation, Photography and Human Vision." Afterimage. 7:9 (April, 1980): 8-9.

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Picturing and Representing." In Calvin Nodine and Dennis Fisher. (Eds.) Perception and Pictorial Representation. (New York: Praeger, 1979).

II A3. Visual Illusions/Ambiguities

Carraker, R. G. and J. B. Thurston. Optical Illusions and the Visual Arts. (New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1966).

Coren, S. and J. S. Girgus. "Principles of Perceptual Organization and Spatial Distortion: The Gestalt Illusions." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1980): 404-412.

Coren, S. and J. S. Girgus. Seeing is Deceiving: The Psychology of Visual Illusions. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Gregory, R. L. "Visual Illusions." Scientific American. (November, 1968).

Halpern, D. F. "The Determinants of Illusory-contour Perception." Perception. 10 (1981): 199-214.

Luckiesh, M. Visual Illusions. (New York: Dover, 1965).

Parks, T. E. "Illusory Figures: A (Mostly) A Theoretical Review." Psychological Bulletin. 95 (1984): 282-300.

Reardon, M. E. and T. E. Parks. "The Ponzo Illusion Without Suggested Depth." American Journal of Psychology. 96 (1983): 107-112.

Teuber, M.L. "Sources of Ambiguity in the Prints of Maurits C. Escher." Scientific American. (July, 1974).

Terouanne, E. "'Impossible Figures' and Interpretations of Polyhedral Figures." Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 27 (1983): 370-405.

Tolanksy, S. Optical Illusions. (Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press, 1964).

II A4. Bizarre Images

Kroll, N. E. A., E. M. Schepeler, and K. T. Anglin. "Bizarre Imagery: The Misremembered Mnemonic." Journal of Experimental Psychology: learning, Memory, and Cognition. 12 (1986): 42-53.

Marshall, P. H., K. Nau and C. K. Chandler. "A Functional Analysis of Common and Bizarre Visual Mediators." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 15 (1980): 375-377.

McDaniel, M.A. and G. O. Einstein. "Bizarre Imagery as an Effective Memory Aid: The Importance of Distinctiveness." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 12 (1986): 54-65.

O'Brien, E. J. and C. R. Wolford. "Effect of Delay in Testing on Retention of Plausible versus Bizarre Mental Images." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 8 (1982): 148-152.

Webber, S. M. and P. H. Marshall. "Bizarreness Effects in Imagery as a Function of Processing Level and Delay." Journal of Mental Imagery. 2 (1978): 291-300.

II B. Mental Imagery/Visualization

Anderson, J. R. "Arguments Concerning Representations for Mental Imagery. Psychological Review. 85 (1978): 249-277.

Block, Ned. (Ed.) Imagery. (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1981).

Bullock, D. and S. Severe. "Using Fantasy and Guided Visual Imagery." Academic Therapy. 16 (1982): 311-316.

Cartwright, Desmond S., Mary E. Marks, and John H. Durrett, Jr. "Definition and Measurement of Three Processes of Imagery Representation: Exploratory Studies of Verbally Stimulated Imagery." Multivariate Behavioral Research. 13:4 (1978): 449-473.

Clark, R.L. "Media, Mental Imagery, and Memory." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 26 (4): 355-363.

Di Vesta, F. J., Ingersoll, G. and P. Sunshine. "A Factor Analysis of Imagery Tests." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 10 (1971): 471-479.

Farah, M. J. "Psychophysical Evidence for a Shared Representation Medium for Mental Images and Percepts." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 114 (1985): 91-103.

Finke, Ronald A. Principles of Mental Imagery. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 1989).

Finke, Ronald A. "Visual Functions of Mental Imagery." In K.R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Thomas (Eds.) Handbook of Perception and Human Performance. (New York: Wiley, 1986).

Fleming, M. L. "The Picture in Your Mind." AV Communication Review. 25 (1977): 43-62.

Fodor, Jerry A. "Imagistic Representation in Imagery." In Ned Block (Ed.) Imagery. Cambridge: Mass, The MIT Press, 1981).

Glass, A. L., J. K. Eddy, and P. J. Schwanenflugel. "The Verification of High and Low Imagery Sentences." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 6 (1980): 692-704.

Gombrich, E. H. The Image and the Eye. (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1982.)

Gordon, R. "A Very Private World.: In Sheehan. P. W. (Ed.) The Function and Nature of Imagery. (New York: Academic Press, 1972): 63-80.

Holt, R. R. "Imagery: The Return of the Ostracized." American Psychologist. 19 (1964): 254-264.

Hortin, John A. "Imagery in Our Daily Lives." In R.A. Braden and A. D. Walker (Eds.). Seeing Ourselves: Visualization in a Social Context. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1983).

Katz, Albert N. "What Does it Mean to be a High Imager?" In J.C. Yuille (Ed.) Imagery, Memory and Cognition. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1983): 39-63.

Khatena, J. "Analogy Imagery and the Creative Imagination." Journal of Mental Imagery. 7 (1983): 127-134.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994).

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Mental Imagery." In Daniel N. Osherson, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992): 73-97.

Kosslyn, Stephen M., C. Seger, J.R. Pani, and L. A. Hillger. "When Is Imagery Used in Everyday Life? A Dairy Study." Journal of Mental Imagery. 14 (1990): 131-152.

Kosslyn, Stephen. M. "Stalking the Mental Image." Psychology Today. 19 (1985):23-28.

Kosslyn, Stephen M., J. Brunn, K. R. Cave, and R. W. Wallach. "Individual Differences in Mental Imagery Ability: A Computational Analysis." Cognition 18 (1984): 195-243.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. Ghosts in the Mind's Machine: Creating and Using Images in the Brain. (New York: Norton, 1983).

Kosslyn, Stephen M., Steven Pinker, George E. Smith, Steven P. Shwartz. "On the Demystification of Mental Imagery." In Ned Block (Ed.) Imagery. Cambridge: Mass, The MIT Press, 1981).

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "The Medium and the Message in Mental Imagery." Psychological Review. 88:1 (1981): 46-66. Also in Ned Block (Ed.) Imagery. Cambridge: Mass, The MIT Press, 1981).

Kosslyn, Stephen M. Image and Mind. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980).

Kosslyn Stephen M. and P. Jolicoeur. "A Theory-Based Approach to the Study of Individual Differences in Mental Imagery." In R. E. Snow, P. A. Federico, and W. E. Montague (Eds.) Aptitude, Learning, and Instruction: Cognitive Process Analysis of Aptitude. Vol. 1 (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1980).

Kosslyn, Stephen M. and J. R. Pomerantz. "Imagery, Propositions, and the Form of Internal Representations." Cognitive Psychology. 9 (1977): 52-76.

McKellar, P. "The Investigation of Mental Images." In S. A. Barnet and A. McLaren (Eds.) Penguin Science Survey. (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1965).

Miller, Helen and John Burton. "Images and Imagery Theory." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994, 65-84.

Morris, Peter E. and Peter J. Hampson. Imagery and Consciousness. (NY/London: Academic Press, 1983).

Neisser, Ulric. "Changing Conceptions of Imagery." In Peter W. Sheehan, (Ed.) The Function and Nature of Imagery. (New York: Academic Press, 1972): 233-251.

Paivio, A. and M. Cohen. "Eidetic Imagery and Cognitive Abilities." Journal of Mental Imagery. 3 (1979): 53-64.

Paivio, Allen. "Imagery as a Private Audiovisual Aid." Instructional Science. 9 (1980): 295-309.

Paivio, Allan. "Perceptual comparisons Through the Mind's Eye." Memory and Cognition. 3:6 (1975): 635-647.

Pinker, S. "Mental Imagery and the Third Dimension." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 109 (1980): 354-371.

Pylyshyn, Zenon. "What the Mind's Eye Tells the Mind's Brain: A Critique of Mental Imagery." Psychological Bulletin 80 (July, 1973): 1-24.

Pylyshyn, Zenon. "The Imagery Debate: Analogue Media Versus Tacit Knowledge." Psychological Review. 88 (1981): 16-45.

Reed, S. K. "Structural Descriptions and the Limitations of Visual Images." Memory and Cognition 2 (1974): 329-336.

Richardson, A. Mental Imagery. (New York: Springer, 1969)

Samuels, M. and N. Samuels. Seeing With the Mind's Eye: The History, Techniques, and Uses of Visualization. (New York: Random House, 1975).

Sheehan, Peter W. (Ed.) The Function and Nature of Imagery. (New York: Academic Press, 1972).

Sheikh, Anees A. Imagery: Current Theory, Research, and Application. (New York, John Wiley & Sons,, 1983).

Shepard, Roger N. "The Mental Image." American Psychologist. 33 (1978): 125-137.

Shepard, Roger N. and Lynn A. Cooper. Mental Images and Their Transformations. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 1986).

Simon, H.A. "What Is Visual Imagery: An Information Processing Interpretation." In L. W. Gregg (Ed.). Cognition in Learning and Memory. (New York: Wiley, 1972).

Wicker, F. W. "Our Picture of Mental Imagery: Prospects for Research and Development." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 26 (1978): 15-24.

II B1. Imagery and Perception

Baddeley, A. D., S. Grant, E. Wight, and N. Thomson. "Imagery and Visual Working Memory." In P.M. A. Rabbitt and S. Dornic (Eds.) Attention and Performance. Vol. 5. (London: Academic Press, 1974).

Banks, W. P. "Assessing Relations Between Imagery and Perception." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1981): 844-847.

Brown, Polly, Janice M. Keenan, and George R. Potts. "The Self-Reference Effect with Imagery Encoding." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 51:5 (1986): 897-906.

Finke, Ronald A. "Levels of Equivalence in Imagery and Perception" Psychological Review. 87 (1980): 113-132.

Groninger, L. D. and L. K. Groninger. "Function of Images in the Encoding-Retrieval Process." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 8 (1982): 353-358.

Hilgard, E. R. "Imagery and Imagination in American Psychology." Journal of Mental Imagery. 5 (1981): 5-66.

Horowitz, Mardi J. Image Formation and Cognition. (New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978).

Lord, Charles G. "Schemas and Images as Memory Aids: Two Modes of Processing Social Information." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 38:2 (1980): 257-269.

MacInnis, Deborah J. and Linda L. Price. "The Role of Imagery in Information Processing: Review and Extensions." Journal of Consumer Research. 13 (March, 1987): 473-491.

Paivio, Allan. "Imagery Ability and Visual Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli." Perception and Psychophysics. 10 (1971): 429-432.

Paivio, A. and J. de Linde. "Imagery, Memory, and the Brain." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 36 (1982): 243-272.

Richardson, J. T. E. Mental Imagery and Human Memory. (London: MacMillan Press, 1980).

Segal, S. J. and V. Fusella. "Influence of Imaged Pictures and Sounds on Detection of Visual and Auditory Signals." Journal of Experimental Psychology.  83 (1970): 458-464.

Wallace, B. "Apparent Equivalence Between Perception and Imagery in the Production of Various Visual Illusions." Memory and Cognition. 12 (1984: 156-162.

Winn, W. "Visual Information Processing: A Pragmatic Approach to the 'Imagery Question'." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28 (1980): 120-133.

Yuille, J.C. and M. G. Catchpole. "The Role of Imagery in Models of Cognition." Journal of Mental Imagery. 1 (1977): 171-180.

II B2. Imagery and Education

Bower, G. H. "Imagery as a Relational Organizer in Associative Learning." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1970 (9): 529-533.

Couch, Richard A. "Mental Imagery, Cognitive Style and Their Effects on Learning Different Levels of Learning Objectives." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Judy C. Baca and Roberts A. Braden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual Literacy Assocation, 1990).

Ernest, C. H. "Imagery Ability and Cognition: A Critical Review." Journal of Mental Imagery. 1977 (1): 113-132.

Fleming, M. L. and D. Hutton. (Eds.) Mental Imagery and Learning. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1983).

McCarty, D. L. "Investigation of a Visual Imagery Mnemonic Device for Acquiring Face-Name Associations." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 6 (1980): 145-155.

Sheikh, Anees A. and Katherine S. Sheikh. Imagery in Education. (Farmingdale NY: Baywood Publishing, 1985).

Speidel, G. E. and M. E. Troy. "The Ebb and Flow of Mental Imagery In Education." In A. A. Sheikh and K. S. Sheikh. (Eds.). Imagery in Education. (Farmingdale NY: Baywood, 1985).

Winn, W. "Visualization in Learning and Instruction." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30 (1982): 3-25.

II B3. Vividness

Dickel, M. J. and S. Slak. "Imagery Vividness and Memory for Verbal Material." Journal of Mental Imagery. 7 (1983): 121-126.

Rhodes, John Wiley. "Relationships Between Vividness of Mental Imagery and Creative Thinking." Journal of Creative Behavior. 15:2 (1981): 9-98.

Taylor, S. E. and S. C. Thompson. "Stalking the Elusive 'Vividness' Effect." Psychological Review. 89 (1982): 155-181.

II C. Philosophy: Epistemology

Denis, M. and M. Carfantan. "People's Knowledge about Images." Cognition. 20 (1985): 49-60.

Dretske, Fred. "Seeing, Believing, and Knowing." In Daniel N. Osherson, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992).

Dretske, Fred. Seeing and Knowing. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).

Paivio, Allan. "On Exploring Visual Knowledge." In B. S. Randhawa and W. E. Coffman (Eds), Visual Learning, Thinking and communication. New York: Academic Press, 1978: 113-131.

Rancourt, R. "Epistemology: A Forgotten Factor in the Learning-Teaching Process." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 3:2 (1983): 29-44.

Spelke, Elizabeth S. "Origins of Visual Knowledge. In Daniel N. Osherson, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992): 99-128.

II C1. Visual Thinking

Arnheim, Rudolph. Visual Thinking. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974).

Arnheim, Rudolf. Review essay of Picasso's Guernica: The Labyrinth of Narrative and Vision (by Frank D. Russell). Studies in Visual Communication. 7:2 (Spring 1981): 84-88.

Curtiss, Deborah. "Visual Thinking: How Do We Define, Identify and Facilitate It?" In Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.). Investigating Visual Literacy, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc. 1990).

Dake, Dennis. "Visual Thinking Skills for the Digital Age." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Dake, Dennis. "Visual Links: Discovery in Art and Science." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art and Science. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Hortin, John A. "Introspection and Visual Thinking for Instructional Technology." Educational Technology. 13:6 (1982).

McKim, Robert H. Experiences in Visual Thinking. (Monterey CA: Brooks/Cole, 1980).

McKim, Robert H. Thinking Visually. (Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 1980).

Osherson, Daniel N., Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992).

Paivio, Allan. "Imagery and Synchronic Thinking." Canadian Psychological Review. 16 (1975): 147-163.

Randhawa, Bikkar S. and William E. Coffman (Eds.). Visual Learning, Thinking and Communication. (New York: Academic Press, 1978).

Renk, Jeffrey M., Robert C. Branch, Echeol Chang. "Visual Information Strategies in Mental Model Development." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Wolf, H. Visual Thinking: Methods for Making Images Memorable. (New York: Rizzoli, 1988).

II C2. Visual Interpretation

Couch, Richard, Edward J. Caropreso and Hellen Miller. "Making Meaning From Visuals: Creative Thinking and Interpretation of Visual Information." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 27-29.

Curtiss, Deborah. "From Iconic to Lingual: Interpreting Visual Statements." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Curtiss, Deborah. "An Eclectic Approach to the Interpretation of Visual Statements." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Messaris, Paul and Michael Pallenik. "Attribution and Inference in the Interpretation of Candid and Staged Film Events." Studies in Visual Communication 4 (Spring 1977): 51-58.

Messaris, Paul and Larry Gross. "Interpretations of a Photographic Narrative by Viewers in Four Age Groups." Studies in Visual Communication 4 (Winter 1977): 99-111.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Abduction and a Theory of Visual Interpretation," Communication Theory, forthcoming.

Pettersson, Rune. "Intended and Perceived Image content." In L.W. Miller (Ed.) Creating Meaning. Pomona: :International Visual Literacy, 1985).

Pettersson, Rune. "Interpretation of Image Content." In R.A. Braden, B. Braden, D.G. Beauchamp. and L. Miller (Eds.) Visual Literacy in Life and Learning. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1988).

Ruby, Jay. "In a Pic's Eye: Interpretative Strategies for Deriving Significance and Meaning from Photographs." Afterimage (March 1976): 5-7.

Russell, Anne L. "Viewers' Contributions to a Photograph." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age .(Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

Ullman, S. The Interpretation of Visual Motions. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1980).

II D. Visual Information

Gibson, James J. "The Information Available in Pictures, Leonardo 4 (Winter 1971): 27-35.

Friedman, Alinda and L. E. Bourne Jr.. "Encoding the Levels of Information in Pictures and Words." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 105 (1976): 169-190.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Information Representation in Visual Images." Cognitive Psychology. 7 (1975): 341-370

Lee, D. N. "Visual Information During Locomotion." In R. B. MacLeod and H.L. Pick (Eds.). Perception: Essays in Honor of James J. Gibson. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974).

Loftus, G. R. and S. M. Bell. "Two Types of Information in Picture Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 1 (1975): 103-113.

II E. The Language Metaphor

Barbatsis, Gretchen and Keith Kenney. "Pictorial Language: Meaning in Form" International Communication Association Conference, Chicago, 1986.

Barbatsis, Gretchen. "Pictorial Language Structure: Theoretical Framework and Description." Speech Communication Association Conference. Washington D.C., November, 1983.

Barbatsis, Gretchen and Lori S. Owen. "Pictorial Language: Explorations of a Universal or Culturally Bound Code." Speech Communication Association, Boston, November, 1987.

Bayer, Jonathan. "In Search of a Photographic Language." Artscribe. (July 1977): 23-30.

Debes, John L. "Some Aspects of the Reading of Visual Languages." National Conference on Visual Literacy, Cincinnati, OH, 1972.

Hennis, R.S. "Needed: Research in the Visual Language." English Journal. 70:1 (1981): 79-82.

Kaha, C. W. "Toward a Syntax of Motion." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (December, 1993): 339-348.

Kepes, Gyorgy. The Language of Vision, (New York: George Brazille, 1944).

Kepes, Gyorgy. (Ed.) Education of Vision. (New York: George Braziller, 1965).

Mandler, J. M. and N. S. Johnson. "Some of the Thousand Words a Picture is Worth." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2 (1976): 529-540.

Metallinos, Nikos. "The Syntax of Moving Images: Principles and Applications." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1995).

Mitchell, W. J. T. (Ed.) The Languages of Images. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980).

Moriarty, Sandra. "Visual Communication as a Primary System." Journal of Visual Communication, forthcoming.

Muffoletto, Robert. "The Reading of Pictures: A consideration for Developing a Critical Model." In R.A. Braden and A.D. Walker (Eds.). Television and Visual Literacy. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 1982).

Pettersson, Rune. "Picture Legibility, Readability, and Reading Value." In A.D. Walker, R.A. Braden, and L.H. Dunker (Eds.). Visual Literacy: Enhancing Human Potential. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, 1984).

Pettersson, Rune. "Verbal/Visual Literacies: Their Languaging Relationships." Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly 9:4 (1988): 295-314.

Searle, Leroy. "Language Theory and Photographic Praxis." Afterimage. (Summer 1979): 26-34.

Stewig, J.W. "Reading Pictures." Journal of Visual Literacy. 9:1 (1989): 70-82.

Sucy, James. "Why Do visual Literacy Projects Fail?" In N.J. Thayer and S. Clayton-Randolph (Eds.). Visual Literacy: Cruising into the Future. (Bloomington, IN: International Visual Literacy Association, 1985).

Szlichcinski, K. P. "The Syntax of Pictorial Illustrations." In P.A. Kolers, M. F. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma. (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language: Vol. 2 (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 113-124.

Tiemens, Robert K. and S. R. Acker. "Image Size as an Element of Visual Language." Speech Communication Association, Washington, D.C., 1976.

Tiemens, Robert K. and R. K. Avery. "The Syntax of Visual Messages: An Empirical Investigation of the Asymmetry of the Frame Theory." Speech Communication Association Conference, Washington, D.C., 1975.)

Turbayne, C.M. "The Syntax of Visual Language." In C.M. Williams and J.L. Debes (Eds.) Proceedings of the First National Conference on Visual Literacy. (New York,: Pitman Publishing, 1970).

Wendt, P. R. "The Language of Pictures," In S.I. Hayakawa (Ed.), The Use and Misuse of Language, (Greenwich CN: Fawcett, 1962): 175-193..

II E1. Visual/Verbal Comparisons

Anderson, R. E. "Short-term Retention of the Where and When of Pictures and Words." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 105 (1976): 378-402.

Anglin, G.J. "Prose-relevant Pictures and Older Learners' Recall of Written Prose." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 34 (2): 131-136.

Anglin, G.J. "Effect of Pictures on Recall of Written Prose: How Durable are Picture Effects?" Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35 (19): 25-30.

Braden, Roberts A. "Examining Visual Verbal Relationships." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Braden, Roberts A. "Visualizing the Verbal and Verbalizing the Visual." In R.A. Braden and A.D. Walker (Eds.), Seeing Ourselves: Visualization in a Social Context. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1983).

Childers, Terry L., Susan E. Heckler and Michael J. Houston. "Memory for the Visual and Verbal Components of Print Advertisements." Psychology and Marketing, 3 (Spring, 1986): 137-150.

Constantine, Mildred. (Ed.) Text by Alan M. Fern. Word and Image. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1968).

Corcoran, F. "Processing Information from Screen Media: A Psycholinguistic Approach." Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29 (2): 117-128.

Culbertson, Hugh M. "Words vs. Pictures: Perceived Impact and Connotative Meaning," Journalism Quarterly, 51 (Summer 1974), 226-237.

Davies, Duncan, Diana Bathurst and Robin Bathurst. The Telling Image: The Changing Balance Between Pictures and Words in a Technological Age. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).

Dewhurst, S. A. and M. A. Conway. "Pictures, Images, and Recollective Experience." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 10:5 (1994): 1088-1098.

Durso, F.T. and J. K. Johnson. "Facilitation in Naming and Categorizing Repeated Pictures and Words." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5:5 (1979): 449-459.

Dwyer, F.M. "Examining the Symbiotic Relationship Between Verbal and Visual Literacy in Terms of Facilitating Student Achievement." Reading Psychology 9 (1988): 365-380.

Gehring, R. E., M.P. Toglia and G. A. Kimble. "Recognition Memory for Words and Pictures at Short and Long Retention Intervals." Memory and Cognition. 4 (1976): 256-260.

Geisser, Maura J. "Logical Reasoning: With Pictures...Not Without Words," In Judy Clark Baca, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Roberts A. Braden, Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures, IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1991: 173-182.

Gentner, D. and E. F. Loftus. "Integration of Verbal and Visual Information As Evidenced by Distortions in Picture Memory." American Journal of Psychology. 92 (1979). 363-375.

Guenther, R. K. "Conceptual Memory for Pictures and Prose Episodes." Memory and Cognition. 1980 (8): 563-572.

Heckler, Susan E. and Terry L. Childers. "The Role of Expectancy and Relevancy in Memory for Verbal and Visual Information: What is Incongruency?" Journal of Consumer Research. 18 (March, 1992): 475-492.

Hobbs, R. "Visual-Verbal Synchrony and Television News: Decreasing the Knowledge Gap." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 7:2 (1987): 6-20.

Intraub, H. "The Role of Implicit Naming in Pictorial Encoding." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5 (1979): 78-87.

Kolers, P. A. and S. J. Brison. "Commentary: On Pictures, Words, and Their Mental Representation." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 23 (1984): 105-113.

Kunen, S. and E. M. Duncan. "Do Verbal Descriptions Facilitate Visual Inferences?" Journal of Educational Research. 76 (1983): 370-373.

Loftus, E. F., D. G. Miller and H. J. Burns. "Semantic Integration of Verbal Information Into a Visual Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 4 (1978): 19-31.

Lupton, Ellen . "Reading Isotype." In Victor Margolin, (Ed.) Design Discouse: History, Theory, Criticism. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989):145-156.

Lutz, W. J. and C. J. Scheirer. "Coding Processes for Pictures and Words." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 13 (1974): 316-320.

Mandler, J. M and N. S. Johnson. "Some of the Thousand Words a Picture is Worth." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2 (1976): 529-540.

Mayer, R.E. and J.K. Gallini. "When is an Illustration Worth Ten Thousand Words?" Journal of Educational Psychology. 82:6 (1990): 715-726.

Nelson, D. L. "Remember Pictures and Words: Appearance, Significance, and Name." In L. S. Cermak and F. I. M. Craik (Eds.) Levels of Processing in Human Memory. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979).

Nelson, D. L. and D. Castano. "Mental Representations for Pictures and Words: Same or Different?" American Journal of Psychology. 97 (1984): 1-15.

Nelson, D. L., V. S. Reed and C. L. McEvoy. "Learning to Order Pictures and Words: A Model of Sensory and Semantic Encoding." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 3 (1977): 485-497.

Orwig, G. W. "Effects of Verbal Shadowing on the Recognition of Visually Presented Verbal and Nonverbal Information." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27 (1979): 25-30.

Paivio, Allan. "The Relationship Between Verbal and Perceptual Codes. In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception Vol. 9: Perceptual Processing. (New York: Academic Press, 1978).

Paivio, Allan. Imagery and Verbal Processes. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971).

Paivio, Allan and I. Begg. "Concrete-Image and Verbal Memory Codes." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1969 (80): 279-285.

Paivio, Allan, T. B. Rogers, and P. C. Smythe. "Why are Pictures Easier to Recall than Words?" Psychonomic Science. 1968 (11): 137-138.

Peterson, M. J. and S. H. McGee. "The Effects of Imagery Instructions, Imagery Ratings, and the Number of Dictionary Meanings Upon Recognition and Recall." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1974 (102): 1007-1014.

Pettersson, Rune. "Image-Word-Image." In R.A. Braden, D.G. Beauchamp, and L.W. Miller (Eds.). Visible and Viable: The Role of Images in Instruction and Communication. (Commerce, TX: The International Visual Literacy Association, 1987); also in Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 6:2 (Fall, 1986): 7-21..

Pettersson, Rune. "Interplay of Visuals and Legends." Visual Literacy Newsletter. 14:5 (1985): 1-3.

Pryluck, Calvin B. "The Film Metaphor: The Use of Language Based Models in Film Study." Literature/film Quarterly. 3 (1975): 117-123.

Pullen, Terri G. "East Moves West: Questioning the Verbal Supremacy of Traditional Literary Studies: The Visual/Verbal Interaction in Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses." In Judy Clark Baca, Darrel G. Beauchamp and Roberts A. Braden (Eds). Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1991: 503-508.

Quine, W. V. O. Word and Object. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1960).

Smith, M. C., and L. E. Magee. "Tracing the Time Course of Picture-Word Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 109 (1980): 373-392.

Smith, Ruth Ann, Michael J. Houston, and Terry L. Childers. "Verbal versus Visual Processing Modes: An Empirical Test of the Cyclical Processing Hypothesis." In Thomas Kinnear (Ed.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 11. (Ann Arbor MI: Association for Consumer Research, 1984): 75-80.

Smith, S. L. "Exploring Compatibility with Words and Pictures." Human Factors. 23 (1981): 305-315.

Snodgrass, J. G. "Towards a Model for Picture and Word Processing. In P. A. Kolers, M. R. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma. (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language: Vol. 2. (New York: Plenum Press, 1980).

Snodgrass, J. G. "Towards a Model for Picture and Word Processing." In Kolers, M., F. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language: Vol. 2. (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 565-584.

Standing, L. and P. Smith. "Verbal-Pictorial Transformations in Recognition Memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology. 29 (1975): 316-356.

Willows, D.M. "A Picture is Not Always Worth a Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading." Journal of Educational Psychology. 70 (1978): 155-162.

Wiseman S., C. M. MacLeod and P. J. Lootsteen. "Picture Recognition Improves with Subsequent Verbal Information." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 11 (1974): 675-681.

II E2. Pictorial Superiority Effect

Childers, Terry L. and Michael J. Houston. "Conditions for a Picture Superiority Effect on Consumer Memory." Journal of Consumer Research. 11 (September, 1984): 552-563.

Intraub, H. and S. Nicklos. "Levels of Processing and Picture Memory: The Physical Superiority Effect." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 11 (1985): 284-298.

Kobayashi, S. "Theoretical Issues Concerning Superiority of Pictures Over Words and Sentences in Memory." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 63 (1986): 783-792.

Nelson, Douglas L. V. S. Reed, and J.R. Walling. "Pictorial Superiority Effect." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2 (1976): 523-528.

Paivio, Allan and A. K. Csapo. "Picture Superiority in Free Recall: Imagery or Dual Coding?" Cognitive Psychology. 1973 (5): 176-206.

II E3. Visual/Verbal/Audio Interaction

Begg, I. "Imagery and Integration in the Recall of Words." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 1973 (27): 159-167.

Benson, Philippa Jane. "Problems in Picturing Text." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993)

Bosley, Rhody. "Radio Study Tells Imagery Potential." Advertising Age, September 6, 1992: R3.

Bryce, Wendy J. and Richard Yalch, "Hearing Versus Seeing: A Comparison of Consumer Learning of Spoken and Pictorial Information in Television Advertising." Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. 15: 1 (spring, 1993): 1-20.

Crigler, A. N., M. Just and W.R. Neuman. "Interpreting Visual Versus Audio Messages in Television News." Journal of Communication. 44 (1994): 132-149.

Ferrington, Gary. "Audio Design: Creating Multi-Sensory Images for the Mind.: Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 61-67.

Lang, Annie. "Defining Audio/Visual Redundancy from a Limited Capacity Information Processing Perspective." Communication Research. 22:1 (February 1994): 86-115.

Linton, James, J. Schemelefske and W. Liffy. "Dominance and Compatibility in Musical-Visual Combinations in Video Communication." Canadian Communication Association Conference, Montreal Quebec, 1980.

Pettersson, Rune. "The Use of Visuals in Oral Presentations. Educational Technology Research and Development. 40:2 (1992): 109-116.

Segal, S. J., and V. Fusella. 'Influence of Imaged Pictures and Sounds on Detection of Visual and Auditory Signals." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 83 (1970): 458-464.

Weber, R. J. and R. Harnish. "Visual Imagery for Words: The Hebb Test." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 102 (1974): 409-414.

Willemen, Paul. "Cinematic Discourse: The Problem of Inner Speech." In Stephen Heath, Patricia Miller (Eds.) Cinema and Language. (Frederick MO: University Publishers of America, 1988): 141-167.

III. Bio/Physical Factors and Processes

III A. Vision/Physiology/Optics

Berleley, G. ""An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision." In J. E. Cutting's (Ed.) Perception With an Eye for Motion. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1986): 213-219.

Biederman, Irving. "Higher-Level Vision." In Daniel N. Osherson, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992); 41-72.

Gibson, J. J. "Pictures, Perspective and Perception." Daedalus 89 (1960): 216-227.

Gregory, Richard. The Intelligent Eye. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970).

Hay, J. C. "Optical Motions and Space Perception: An Extension of Gibson's Analysis." Psychological Review. 1966 (73): 550-565.

Helmholtz, H. von. Treatise on Physiological Optics. Vol. III. J.P.C. Southall (Ed.) (New York: Dover, 1962). Originally published, 1857.

Hochberg, Julian. "The Psychophysics of Pictorial Perception." Audio-visual Communication. 10 (1962).

Hubel, David H. Eye, Brain, and Vision. (New York: Scientific American Library. 1988).

Marr, David. Vision.: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information. (San Francisco: Freeman, 1982).

Metallinos, Nikos. "Physiological and Cognitive Factors in the Study of Visual Images." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: (Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 53-64.

Mueller, C. and M. Rudolph. (Eds.) Light and Vision. (New York: Time Inc., 1966).

Neisser, Ulric and R. Becklen. "Selective Looking: Attending to Visually Specified Events. Cognitive Psychology. 7 (1975): 480-494.

Neisser, Ulric. "The Processes of Vision." In Image, Object, and Illusion. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman, 1971.

Neisser, Ulrich. "Visual Search." Scientific American. (June, 1964).

Yuille, A. L. and S. Ullman. "Computational Theories of Low-Level Vision." In Daniel N. Osherson, Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2 (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992): 5-40.

III B. Neural Processing

Ragan, J. M. and T. J. Ragan. "Working Effectively with People: Contributions of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) to Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2:2 (1982): 67-79.

Whitaker, H. A. "Neurolinguistics: Past, Present, and Future Trends." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 53.

IV. Psychology

Deregowski, J. B. "Pictures as a Means of Communication: A Psychologist's View." Educational Broadcasting International. 11 (March, 1978): 7-12.

Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 4th ed. (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990).

IV A. Psychology of Art

Arnheim, Rudolph. Toward a Psychology of Art. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1972).

Gombrich, E. H., Julian Hochberg, and M. Black. Art, Perception and Reality. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972).

Gombrich, E. H. Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. (New York: Parthenon, 1960).

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Compression of Pictorial Space Through Perspective Reversal." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 16 (1963): 262.

Krieger, M. "The Ambiguities of Representation and Illusion: An E. H. Gombrich Retrospective. Critical Inquiry. 11 (1984): 181-194.

Perkins, D. and Leondar, B. (Eds.) The Arts and Cognition. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

Wartofsky, Marx W. "The Paradox of Painting: Pictorial Representation and the Dimensionality of Visual Space." Social Research. 51 (1984): 863-883.

IV B. Perception

Arnheim, Rudolf. Art and Visual Perception. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Bloomer, C.M. Principles of Visual Perception. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.

Broadbent, D. E. Perception and Communication. New York: Pergamon, 1958.

Churchland, P. "Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality." Philosophy of Science. 55 (1987): 167-187.

Epstein, W. "The Process of 'Taking-into-account' in Visual Perception." Perception 2 (1973): 267-285.

Fodor, J. and Z. Pylyshyn. "How Direct is Visual Perception?: Some Reflections on Gibson's 'Ecological Approach'." Cognition 9 (1981): 139-196.

Foerstel, Lenora Shargo. "Cultural Influence on Perception." Studies in Visual Communication. 4 (Spring, 1977): 7-50.

Gibson, James J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986.

Gibson, James J. "A Theory of Direct Visual Perception." In J. R. Royce and W. W. Rozeboom. (Eds.) The Psychology of Knowing. (New York: Gordon and Breach, 1972).

Gibson, James J. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1966).

Gibson, James J. The Perception of the Visual World. (Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1950).

Gregory, Richard. "Choosing a Paradigm for Perception." In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception. Vol. 1: Historical and Philosophical Roots of Perception. (New York: Academic Press, 1974).

Gregory, Richard. "Perceptions as Hypotheses." In S. C. Brown (Ed.) Philosophy of Psychology. (London: Macmillan, 1974).

Haber, Ralph N. "The Power of Visual Perceiving." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 3:1 (1983): 9-20.

Haber, Ralph N. and Maurice Hershenson. The Psychology of Visual Perception. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973).

Haber, Ralph N. (Ed.) Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1967).

Hagen, Margaret A. "James J. Gibson's Ecological Approach to Visual Perception." In S. Koch and D.E. Leary (Eds.), A Century of Psychology as a Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985: 231-249.

Harris, C. S. "Insight or Out of Sight? Two Examples of Perceptual Plasticity in the Human Adult." In C. S. Harris (Ed.) Visual Coding and Adaptability. (Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980).

Heil, J. Perception and Cognition. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1983).

Hochberg, Julian. "Sensation and Perception" In Eliot Hearst (Ed.) The First Century of Experimental Psychology. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979).

Hochberg, Julian. Perception. 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliff NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978).

Hochberg, Julian. "The Perception of Motion Pictures" and "Art and Visual Perception." In Handbook of Perception, Edward Carterette and Morton P. Friedman, eds. Vol. X. (New York: Academic Press, 1978).

Hochberg, Julian. "In the Mind's Eye." In Ralph N. Haber (Ed.) Contemporary Theory and Research in Visual Perception. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.)

Hyssop, Alec. "Seeing Through Seeing-In." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 26 (Autumn, 1986): 371-379.

Kolers, P. A. "Perception and Representation." Annual Review of Psychology. 34 (1983): 129-166.

Mace, W. M. "James Gibson's Strategy for Perceiving: Ask Not What's in Your Head, but What Your Head is Inside of." In R. Shaw and J. Bransford (Eds.). Perceiving, Acting and Knowing. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1977).

Macleod, R. B. and H. L. Pick Jr. (Eds.) Perception: Essays in Honor of James J. Gibson. (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1974).

Michaels, C. F. and C. Carello. Direct Perception. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1981).

Murch, Gerald. Visual and Auditory Perception. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Navon, D. "Forest Before Trees: The Precedence of Global Features in Visual Perception." Cognitive Psychology ( (1977): 333-383.

Norton, D. and L. Stark. "Eye Movements and Visual Perception." Scientific American. (June, 1964).

Podgorny, P. and R. N. Shepard. "Functional Representations Common to Visual Perception and Imagination." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1978(4): 21-35.

Sanford, D. "The Primary Objects of Perception." Mind 85 (1976): 189-208.

Shaw, R. and J. Bransford (Eds.). Perceiving, Acting and Knowing. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1977).

Sibley, F. N. "Analyzing Seeing." In F. N. Sibley (Ed.) Perception. (London: Methune, 1971).

Ullman, S. "Against Direct Perception." Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3 (1980): 373-415.

Vernon, M.D. A Further Study of Visual Perception. London: Cambridge University Press, 1952.

Wallach, H. On Perception. (New York: Quadrangle, 1976).

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Art History and Perception." In J. Fisher (Ed.), Art and Perception, (1980).

Winn, W.D. "Perception Principles." In M. Fleming and W.H. Levie (Eds.). Instructional Message Design: Principles from the Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1993).

Zuxne, L. Visual Perception of Form. (New York: Academic Press, 1970).

IV B1. Pictorial Perception

Deregowski, J. B. "Pictorial Perception and Culture." Scientific American. 227 (1972): 82-88.

Gibson, James J. "A Theory of Pictorial Perception." Audio Visual Communication Review. 2, 1954: 2-23.

Hagen, Margaret A. (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Hagen, Margaret A. "Generative Theory: A Perceptual Theory of Pictorial Representation." In M. A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures Vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1980): 3-46.

Hagen, Margaret A., R. K. Jones and E. S. Reed. "On a Neglected Variable in Theories of Pictorial Perception: Truncation of the Visual Field." Perception Psychophysics. 1978 (23): 326-330.

Hagan, Margaret A. "An Outline of an Investigation into the Special Character of Pictures." In H. L. Pick Jr. and E. Saltzman (Eds.). Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Hagen Margaret A. "A Distinctive Characteristic of Pictorial Perception: The Zoom Effect." Perception. 1978 (1): 625-633.

Hagan, Margaret A. "Picture Perception: Toward a Theoretical Model." Psychological Bulletin. 81 (1974): 471-497.

Hochberg, Julian. "The Perception of Pictorial Representations," Social Research, 51 (Winter 1984): 841-862.

Hochberg, Julian. "Pictorial Functions in Perception, Art Education, (March, 1993): 15-17.

Hochberg, Julian. "Pictorial Functions and Perceptual Structures." In Margaret A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures. Vol. 2 (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Kennedy, John M. A Psychology of Picture Perception, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974).

Nodine, Calvin and Dennis Fisher. (Eds.) Perception and Pictorial Representation. (New York: Praeger, 1979).

Nodine, Calvin and Dennis Fisher (Eds.) Views of Pictorial Representation: Making, Perceiving and Interpreting. (New York: Praeger, 1979).

IV B2. Gestalt Perception

Antes, J. R. and R. L. Metzger. "Influence of Picture context on Object Recognition." Acta Psychological. 44 (1980): 21-30.

Attneave, F. "Multistability in Perception." Scientific American, (December, 1971).

Chastain, G. "A Correct Initial Impression Aids Figure Identification." Psychological Research. 40 (1978): 127-138.

Freedman, J. "One Reason Why We Rarely Forget a Face." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 3 (1974): 107-109.

Friedman, Alinda. "Framing Pictures: The Role of Knowledge in Automatized Encoding and Memory for Gist." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 108 (3, 1979): 316-355.

Hochberg, Julian. "Organization and the Gestalt Tradition" In E. C. Carterette and M. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception, Vol. 1. (New York: Academic Press, 1974).

Hock, H.S. and K. F. Schmelzkopf. "The Abstraction of Schematic Representations from Photographs of Real-World Scenes." Memory & Cognition. 98 (1980): 543-554.

Kanizsa, Gaetano. Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Perception. (New York: Praeger, 1970).

Machotka, Pavel and John P. Spiegel. "Construction of Pictorial Meaning." Studies in Visual Communication. 5:2 (Spring, 1979): 115-131.

Tversky, B. and K. Hemenway. "Categories of Environmental Scenes." Cognitive Psychology. 15 (1983): 121-149.

Wertheimer, M. "Principles of Perceptual Organization." IN D. C. Beardslee and M. Wertheimer (Eds). Readings in Perception (Princeton NJ: Van Nostrand, 1958.)


IV B3. Attention/Selection

Becklen, R. and Cervone, D. "Selective Looking and the Noticing of Unexpected Events." Memory & Cognition. 11 (1983): 601-608.

Biederman, I, R. C. Teitelbau and R. J. Massanotee. "Scene Perception: A Failure to Find a Benefit From Prior Expectancy or Familiarity." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 9 (1983): 411-429.

Goldstein, E. B. and S. I. Fink. "Selective Attention in Vision: Recognition Memory for Superimposed Line Drawings." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1981): 954-967.

Houtmans, M. J. M. and A. F. Sanders. "Perception of Signals Presented in the Periphery of the Visual Field." Acta Psychologica. 55 (1984): 143-155.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Scanning Visual Images: Some Structural Implications." Perception and Psychophysics. 14 (1973): 90-94.

Lang, Annie. "Involuntary Attention and Physiological Arousal Evoked by Structural Features and Emotional Content in TV Commercials." Communication Research. 15:4 (Summer, 1989): 493-506.

Lewis, M. S. "Determinants of Visual Attention in Real-world Scenes." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 41 (1975): 411-416.

McLeskey J, W. H. Levie and M. L. Fleming. "Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli: The Need to Combine Theory and Research." Journal of Special Education Technology. 5 (1982): 23-32.

Neisser, Ulrich and R. Becklen. "Selective Looking: Attending to Visually Specified Events. " Cognitive Psychology. 7 (1975): 480-494.

Phillips, P. E. "Selective Attention Theory and Its Application to Visual Arts Research: A Review of Theory and Supporting Research." Review of Research in Visual Arts Education. 6 (1977): 13-33.

Rock, I and D. Gutman. "The Effect of Inattention on Form Perception." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 7 (1981): 275-285.

Schiller, H. A. "Transforming Attention into Awareness." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2:1 (1982): 15-28.

Warshaw, P. R. "Application of Selective Attention Theory to Television Advertising Displays." Journal of Applied Psychology. 63 (1978): 366-372.

IV B4. Pictorial/Image Recognition

Barnard, W. A., M. Breeding and H. A. Cross. "Object Recognition as a Function of Stimulus Characteristics." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 15-18.

Davies, G. M. "The Recognition of Persons from Drawings and Photographs." Human Learning. 2 (1983): 237-249.

Kiphart, J. J., D. D. Sjogren, and H. A. Cross. "Some Factors Involved in Complex-picture Recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 197-199.

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Ability." American Journal of Psychology. 75 (1962): 624-628.

Leibrich, J. and K. G. White. "Recognition Memory for Pictorial Events." Memory & Cognition. 11 (1983): 121-128.

Levie, W. Howard. "Picture Recognition Memory: A Review of Research and Theory," Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging, 8 (1): 6-45.

Loftus, G. R. and H. J. Kallman. "Encoding and Use of Detail Information in Picture Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5 (1979): 197-211.

IV B5. Memory

Adelson, E.H. and J. Jonides. "The Psychophysics of Iconic Storage." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 6 (1980): 486-493.

Baggett, P. "Memory for Explicit and Implicit Information in Picture Stories." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 14 (1975): 21-30.

Bower, G. H. and M. B. Karlin. "Depth of Processing of Pictures and Faces in Recognition Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 103 (1974): 751-757.

Bowling, A. and W. Lovegrove. "Iconic Memory: Fallacies Persist." Perception and Psychophysics. 31 (1982): 194-198.

Cohen, G. "How Are Pictures Registered in Memory?" Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 25 (1973): 557-564.

Costley, Carolyn L. and Duane DeWald, "Cue Modality: Video and Audio Effects on Recall." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael H. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 18 (1990): 819-825.

Coulter, R. G. M.L. Coulter, and J. A. Glover. "Details and Picture Recall." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 22 (1984): 327-329.

Decker, W.H. and P.C. Wheatley. "Spatial Grouping, Imagery, and Free Recall." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 55 (1982): 45-46.

Di Lollo, V. "Temporal Integration in Visual Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 109 (1980): 75-97.

Durso, F. T. and C. S. O'Sullivan. "Naming and Remembering Proper and Common Nouns and Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 9 (1983): 497-510.

Egan, D. E. and B. J. Schwartz. "Chunking in Recall of Symbolic Drawings." Memory and Cognition. 7 (1979): 149-158.

Fleming, M. L. and M. Sheikhian. "Influence of Pictorial Attributes on Recognition Memory." AV Communication Review. 20 (1972): 423-441.

Franken, R. E. and J. Davis. "Predicting Memory for Pictures from Rankings of Interestingness, Pleasingness, Complexity, Figure-Ground and Clarity." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 41 (1975): 243-247.

Franken, R. W. and G. L. Rowland. "Organizational Factors in Picture Recognition Memory." Acta Psychologica. 42 (1978): 441-452.

Franzwa, D. "Influence of Meaningfulness, Picture Detail and Presentation Mode on Visual Retention." AV Communication Review. 21 (1973): 209-223.

Gaffan, D. "Measurement of Trace Strength in Memory for Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 30 (1978): 263-208.

Gillund, G. and R. M. Shiffrin. "Free Recall of Complex Pictures and Abstract Words." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 20 (1981): 575-592.

Goldstein, A. G., J. E. Chance, M. Hoisington and K. Buescher. "Recognition Memory For Pictures: Dynamic vs Static Stimuli." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 20 (1982): 37-40.

Goodman, Gail S. "Picture Memory: How the Action Schema Affects Retention." Cognitive Psychology. 12:4 (1980): 473-495.

Haber, R. N. and B. L. Myers. "Memory for Pictograms, Pictures, and Words Separately and All Mixed Up." Perception 11 (1982): 57-64.

Haber, Ralph N. "How We Remember What We See." Scientific American. 222:5 (1970): 104-112.

Hodes, Carol L. "The Effect of Visual Mental Imagery on Speed and Accuracy of Information Retrieved." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Haring, M. J. "Picture Enrichment of Delayed Recall: Support form a Unique Source." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 52 (1982): 104-108.

Hulme, M. and P. Merikle. "Processing Time and Memory for Pictures." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 30 (1976): 31-39.

Intraub, H. "Conceptual Masking: The Effects of Subsequent Visual Events on Memory for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 10 (1985): 284-298.

Katz, Elihu., Hanna Adoni and Pnina Parness. "Remembering the News: What the Picture Adds to Recall." Journalism Quarterly. 54 (1977): 231-239.

Kerst, S. M and J. H. Howard, Jr. "Memory Psychophysics for Visual Area and Length." Memory and Cognition. 1978 (6): 327-335.

Kieras, D. "Beyond Pictures and Words: Alternative Information-Processing Models for Imagery Effects in Verbal Memory." Psychological Bulletin. 85 (1978): 532-554.

Kirasic, K. C. and A. W. Siegel. "Recognition Memory for Pictures: Evidence for a Feature-Analytic Basis of Cognitive Style." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 6 (1975): 453-456.

Levie. W. H. and D. Levie. "Pictorial Memory Processes." AV Communication Review 23 (1975): 81-97.

Loftus, E. F. Eyewitness Testimony. (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1979).

Loftus, G. R., W. W. Nelson, and H. J. Kallman. "Differential Acquisition Rates for Different Types of Information in Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 35A (1983): 187-198.

Leibrich, J. and K. G. White. "Recognition Memory for Pictorial Events." Memory and Cognition. (1983): 121-128.

Madigan, S. "Picture Memory." In J. C. Yuille (Ed.) Imagery, Memory and Cognition. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Mandler, J. M. and G. H. Ritchey. "Long-Term Memory for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 3 (1977): 386-396.

Marks, David F. "Visual Imagery Differences in the Recall of Pictures." British Journal of Psychology. 64 (1, 1973): 17-24.

McKelvie. S. J. and E. G. Demers, "Individual Differences in Reported Visual Imagery and Memory Performance." British Journal of Psychology. 70 (1979): 51-57.

McKoon, G. "The Representation of Pictures in Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 7 (1981): 216-221.

Moyer, R. S. " Comparing Objects in Memory: Evidence Suggesting an Internal Psychophysics." Perception and Psychophysics. 1973 (13): 180-184.

Paivio, Allan. "Imagery in Recall and Recognition." In John Brown (Ed.) Recall and Recognition. (London: Wiley, 1976).

Ritchey, g. H. and C. R. Beal. "Image Detail and Recall: Evidence for Within-item Elaboration." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6 (1980): 66-76.

Schultz, T. "Iconic Memory: An Artifact of Perceptual Reconstruction Processes." Psychological Research. 41 (1980): 275-294.

Tabachnick, B. and S. J. Brotsky. "Free Recall and Complexity of Pictorial Stimuli. Memory and Cognition. 4 (1976): 466-470.

Thorson, Esther and Annie Lang. "The Effects of Television Videographics and Lecture Familiarity on Adult Cardiac Orienting Responses and Memory." Communication Research. 19:3 (June, 1992): 346-369.

Wixeman, S. and Ulrich Neisser. "Perceptual Organization as a Determinant of Visual Recognition Memory." American Journal of Psychology. 87 (1974): 675-681.

IV B6. Visual Perception Cues

Attneave, F. "Some Informational Aspects of Visual Perception." Psychological Review. 1954 (61): 183-193.

Berbaum, K. D. Tharp and K. Mroczek. "Depth Perception of Surfaces in Pictures: Looking for Conventions of Depiction in Pandora's Box. Perception. 12 (1983): 5-20.

Bundesen, C. and A. Larsen. "Visual Transformation of Size." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1 (1975): 214-220.

Butler, D. L. "Predicting the Perception of Three-Dimensional Objects from the Geometrical Information in Drawings." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 8 (1982): 674-692.

Caelli, T. "On Discriminating Visual Textures and Images." Perception and Psychophysics 31 (1982): 149-159.

Carroll, J. M. "Structure in Visual Communication." Semiotica 40 (1982): 371-392.

Cutting, J. E. (Ed.) Perception With an Eye for Motion. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1986): 213-219.

David, Prabu. "Accuracy of Perception of the Different Faces of the Pie." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Fall 1994): 8-9.

David, Prabu. "Accuracy of Visual Perception of Quantitative Graphics: An Exploratory Study." Journalism Quarterly. 69 (Summer, 1992): 273-292.

Freyd, J.J. "The Mental Representation of Movement When Static Stimuli are Viewed." Perception and Psychophysics. 33 (1982): 575-581.

Friedman, S. L. and M. B. Stevenson. "Perception of Movement in Pictures." In M.A. Hagen (Ed.). The Perception of Pictures: Vol. 1. (New York: Academic Press, 1980): 225-155.

Gibson James J. "On the Concept of Formless Invariants in Visual Perception. Leonardo. 1973 (6): 33-35.

Gibson James J. "What is a Form?" Psychological Review. 1951 (58): 403-412.

Haber, R. H. "How We See Depth From Flat Pictures." American Scientist. 68 (1980): 370-380.

Hagen, Margaret A., R. Glick and B. Morse. "The Role of Two-Dimensional Surface Characteristics in Pictorial Depth Perception." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1978 (46): 875-881.

Hagen, Margaret A., and R. K. Jones. "Differential Patterns of Preference for Modified Linear Perspective in Children and Adults." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 1978 (26): 205-215.

Hagen, Margaret A. and R. Glick. "Pictorial Perspective: Perception of Size, Linear, and Texture Perspective in Children and Adults." Perception. 1977 (6): 675-684.

Harris, C. S. "Adaption to Displaced Vision: Visual, Motor or Proprioceptive Change?" Science. 140 (1963): 812-813.

Harris, C. S. (Ed.) Visual Coding and Adaptability. (Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980).

Hochberg, Julian. "Perception: I Color and Shape; II Space and Movement." In J. W. Kling and L. A. Riggs. (Eds.) Woodworth and Schlosberg's Experimental Psychology. 3rd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1972).Koenderink, J.J. and J. A. van Doorn. "The Shape of Smooth Objects and the Way Contours End." Perception. 11 (1982): 129-137.

Johnson, G. "Visual Space Perception Through Motion." In A. M. Wertheim, W. A. Wagner, and H. W. Leibowitz (Eds.). Tutorials on Motion Perception. New York: Plenum Press, 1980).

Johansson G. "Visual Motion Perception." Scientific American. 232 (1975): 76-88.

Jonmes, R. K. and Margaret A. Hagen. "The Perceptual Constraints on Choosing a Pictorial Station Point." Leonardo. 1978 (11): 191-196.

Kaplan, G. "Kinetic Disruption of Optical Texture: The Perception of Depth at an Edge." Perception and Psychophysics. 1969 (6): 193-198.

Kipper, Philip. "Television Camera Movement as a Source of Perceptual Information." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 30 (1986).

Leeuwenberg, E. and H. Buffart. "The Perception of Foreground and Background as Derived from Structural Information Theory." Acta Psychologica. 55 (1984): 249-272.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Perceptual Factors in the Study of Television Aesthetics," In Judy Clark Bacca, Darrel G. Beauchamp, and Roberts A. Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures, IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1991: 359-375.

Metelli, F. "The Perception of Transparency." Scientific American. (April , 1974).

Moore, David M. "Field Independence-Dependence, Multiple Linear Imagery in a Visual Location Task." Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, CA, 1985.

Olson, D. R. and Bialystok, E. Spatial Cognition: The Structure and Development of Mental Representations of Spatial Relations. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Paivio, Allan. "Perceptual Comparisons Through the Mind's Eye." Memory and Cognition. 1975 (3): 635-647.

Palmer, S, E. Rosch and P. Chase. "Canonical Perspective and the Perception of Objects." In J. Long and A. Baddeley (Eds.) Attention and Performance IX. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1981): 135-151.

Ratliff, F. "Contour and Contrast." Scientific American. (June, 1972).

Rock, I. The Nature of Perceptual Adaption. (New York: Basic Books, 1966).

Todd, J.T. and E. Mingolla. "Perception of Surface Curvature and Direction of Illumination from Patterns of Shading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 9 (1983): 583-595.

Ullman, S. The Interpretation of Visual Motion. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1979).

Yoshikawa, S. "Classifying Schematic Faces: Reaction Time Analysis Based on the Similarity Structure." Psychologia. 277 (1984): 10-21.

IV B7. Subliminal Perception

Sutton, Ron. "Subliminal Seduction or Visual Illiteracy?" In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Whittaker, R. "Subliminal Perception: Myth or Magic? Educational Broadcasting. 8:6 (1975): 17-20, 41.

IV. B8 Hemispheres and Visual Perception

Bryden, M. P. and Robert G. "Right Hemispheric Involvement in Imagery and Affect." In Ellen Perecman (Ed.) Cognitive Processing in the Right Hemisphere. (New York: Academic Press, 1983).

Erlichman, H. and J. Barrett "Right Hemispheres Specialization for Mental Imagery: A Review of the Evidence." Brain and Cognition 2 (1983): 55-76.

Farah, M. J. "The Neurological Basis of Mental Imagery: A Componential Analysis. Cognition. 18 (1984): 245-272.

Farah, M. J., M. S. Gazzaniga, J. D. Holtzman, and S. M. Kosslyn. "A Left Brain Basis for Visual Imagery?" Neuropsychologia 23 (1985): 115-118.

Farah, M. J. "Is Visual Imagery Really Visual? Overlooked Evidence from Neuropsychology." Psychological Review. 95 (1988): 307-317.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Seeing and Imagining in the Cerebral Hemispheres: A Computational Approach." Psychological Review. 94 (1987): 148-175.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. Stephen M., J. D. Holtzman, M. J. Farah, and M. S. Gazzaniga. "A Computation Analysis of Mental Image Generation: Evidence from Functional Dissociations in Split Brain Patients." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 1114 (1985): 311-341.

Lang, Annie. and Marian Friestad. "Emotion, Hemispheric Specialization, and Visual and Verbal Memory for Television Messages." Communication Research. 20:5 (October, 1993): 647-670.

Ratcliff, G. "Spatial Thought, Mental Rotation and the Right Cerebral Hemisphere." Neuropsychologia. 17 (1979): 49-54.

Reeves, Byron, Annie Lang, Esther Thorson and Michael Rothschild. "Emotional Television Scenes and Hemispheric Specialization." Human Communication Research. 15:4 (Summer, 1989): 493-508.

Sergent, J. "Inferences from Unilateral Brain Damage about Normal Hemispheric Functions in Visual Pattern Recognition." Psychological Bulletin. 96 (1984): 99-115.

Springer, S. P. and G. Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1981).

Whitaker, H. A. "Dichotomania: An Essay on Left and Right Brains." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 12:1 (1982): 7-14.

IV C. Information Processing/Cognition

Arnheim, Rudolph. Entropy and Art. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1971).

Banks, W. P. "Encoding and Processing of Symbolic Information in Comparative Judgments." In G. H. Bower (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Vol. 11 (New York: Academic Press, 1977).

Blevins, T. E. and D. M. Moore. "The Effects of Cognitive Style and a Supplantation Technique on a Picture Detail Recognition Task." International Journal of Instructional Media. 14 (1987): 99-109.

Brown, F. B., D. Hunt and B. S. Randhawa. "Short-Term Free Recall and Sequential Memory for Pictures and Words: A Simultaneous-Successive Processing Interpretation." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2:1 (1981): 35-44.

Chase, William G. (Ed.) Visual Information Processing. (New York: Academic Press, 1972).

Corcoran, F. "Processing Information from Screen Media: A Psycholinguistic Approach." Education Communication and Technology Journal 29 (1981): 117-128.

Dretske, Fred. "Aspects of Cognitive Representation." In Myles Brand and Robert M. Harnish (Eds.) The Representation of Knowledge and Belief. (Phoenix, AZ: The University of Arizona Press, 1986).

Edell, Julia A. and Richard Staelin. "The Information Processing of Pictures in Print Advertisements." Journal of Consumer Research. 10 (June, 1983): 45-61.

Duradell, A. J. and N. E. Wetherick. "The Relation of Reported Imagery to Cognitive Performance." British Journal of Psychology. 1976 (67): 501-506.

Fitzgerald and Pam Scholder Ellen. "The Effect of Imagery Processing and Imagery Content on Behavioral Intentions." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 449-454.

Bruce, V. "Changing Faces: Visual and Non-Visual Coding Processes in Face Recognition." British Journal of Psychology. 73 (1982): 105-116.

Dwyer, Francis M. and David M. (Mike) Moore. "Effect of Color Coding and Test Type (Visual/Verbal) on Students Identified as Possessing Different Field Dependence Levels." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Grodal, Torben Kragh. "Visual Communication as Textsigns and as Embodied Mental Processes." Nordic Visual Communication Conference, Oslo, 1994 .

Hanley, G. L. and M. Levine. "Spatial Problem Solving: The Integration of Independently Learned Cognitive Maps." Memory and Cognition. 11 (1983): 415-422.

Hobbes, Renee. "Television and the Shaping of Cognitive Skills." In Alan M. Olson, Christopher Parr, and Debra Parr. Video Icons & Values. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1991)

Kennedy, John M. "How Minds Use Pictures." Social Research, 51 (Winter 1984): 885-904.

Kennedy, John M. "What Can We Learn about Pictures from the Blind?" American Scientist 71 (1983): 19-26.

Lang, Annie, Seth Geiger, Melody Strickwerda, and Janine Sumner. "The Effects of Related and Unrelated Cuts on Television Viewers' Attention, Processing Capacity, and Memory." Communication Research. 20:1 (February, 1993): 4-29.

Lang, Annie. "Effects of Chronological Presentation of Information on Processing and Memory for Broadcast News." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 33:4 (Fall, 1989): 441-452.

Loftus, G. R. and H. J. Kallman. "Encoding and Use of Detailed Information in Picture Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 5 (1979): 197-211.

Loftus, G. R., W. Nelson, and H.J. Kallman. "Differential Acquisition Rates for Different Types of Information from Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 35A (1983): 187-198.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Cognitive Factors in the Study of Visual Images: Moving Image Recognition Standards." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Moyer, R. S. and R. H. Bayer. "Mental Comparisons and the Symbolic Distance Effect." Cognitive Psychology. 1976 (8): 228-246.

Neisser, Ulrich. "Abstraction and the Process of Recognition." In J. T. Spench & G.H. Bower (Eds.), Advances in Learning and Motivation (Vol. 3). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

Neisser, Ulrich. Cognitive Psychology. New York: John Wiley, 1967; Posner, M.I.

Nelson, W.W. and G. R. Loftus. "The Functional Visual Field During Picture viewing." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 8 (1980): 391-399.

Osherson, Daniel (Ed.) Visual Cognition and Action. (Cambridge Mass: The MIT Press, 1990).

Osherson, Daniel N., Stephen M. Kosslyn, and John M. Hollerbach (Eds.) Visual Cognition and Action. Vol. 2. (Cambridge Mass, The MIT Press, 1990).

Palmer, S. E. "Fundamental Aspects of Cognitive Representation." In E. Rosch and B. Lloyd (Eds.). Cognition and Categorization. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Parker, R. E. "Picture Processing During Recognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 4 (1978): 284-293.

Pinker, S. "Visual Cognition: An Introduction." In S. Pinker (Ed.). Visual Cognition. (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1985).

Putnam, W. and R. Klatzky. "Processing Locational Information from Memorial and Perceptual Maps." American Journal of Psychology. 94 (1981): 223-245.

Seymour, Philip H. Human Visual Cognition. (London: Collier Macmillan, 1979).

Shaw, Carla Cooper. "Schema Construction: A Visual Tool for the Organization of Knowledge." In Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990.

Snyder, Robert. "Information Processing: A Visual Theory for Television News." Journal of Visual Literacy, 14 (1, 1994): 69-76.

Stanny, C. J. and G. F. Weaver. "Effects of Processing Tasks on the Recognition of Pictures." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 23 (1985): 116-118.

Tomkins, S. S. Affect, Imagery, Consciousness, vol. 1 (The Positive Affects) and Vol. 2 (The Negative Affects). (New York: Springer, 1962, and 1963).

Travers, Robert M.W. Man's Information System. (Scranton: Chandler Publishing, 1970).

Turvey, M. T. "Contrasting Orientations to the Theory of Visual Information Processing." Psychological Review 84 (1977): 67-88.

Watkins, M. J., Z. F. Peynircioglu, and D. J. Brems. "Pictorial Rehearsal." Memory and Cognition. 12 (1984): 553-557

IV D. Codes/Decoding/Encoding

Biocca, Frank. "The Role of Communication Codes in Political Ads." In Frank Biocca, (Ed.) Television and Political Advertising, Vol. 2 (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991).

Bisplinghoff, Gretchen. "Decoding 'Field of Dreams': Movies, Baseball, and the American Dream." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Cobb, N. J. S. Tanhauser and R. Johnston. "Conceptual Encoding of Pictures and Sentences." The Journal of General Psychology. 103 (1980): 139-148.

Gardner, Howard and Leona Jaglom. "Cracking the Codes of Television: The Child as Anthropologist." In Peter D'Agostino, (Ed.) Transmission. (New York: Tanam Press, 1985): 93-102.

Hall, Stuart. Encoding/Decoding. In Hall, Hobson, Lowe and Willis (Eds.) Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-1979. (London: Hutchinson, 1990).

Hodgkinson, A. W. "Teaching the Screen Language: A Basic Method." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 17-28.

Jaglom, Leona and Howard Gardner. "Decoding the World of Television." Studies in Visual Communication, 7:1 (1981): 33-47.

Lutz, Catherine A. and Jane L. Collins. Reading National Geographic. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

Meyrowitz, Joshua. "Television and Interpersonal Behavior: Codes of Perception and Response." In G. Gumpert and R. Cathcart (Eds.) Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. (3rd. ed.) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986): 253-27.

Moriarty, Sandra E. "Visual Codes and Conventions." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, San Antonio, 1987.

Nelson, Douglas L. and David H. Brooks. "Functional Independence of Pictures and Their Verbal Memory Codes." Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (April, 1973): 44-48.

Nelson, Douglas L. and V.S. Reed. "On the Nature of Pictorial Encoding, A Levels of Processing and Cueing: Sensory vs Meaning Features." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory. 2:1 (1976): 49-57.

Reaves, Sheila. "Visual Information in the Age of Electronics & Entertainment: A Suggestion for Theoretical Codes." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Montreal, 1992.

Ruby, Jay. "In a Pic's Eye: Interpretive Strategies for Deriving Significance and Meaning From Photographs." Afterimage. (March 1976): 5-7.

Scott, Linda M. "For the Rest of Us: A Reader-Oriented Interpretation of Apple's 1984 Commercial." Journal of Popular Culture . 25 (Summer 1991): 67-81.

IV D1. Dual Coding/Channels

Babbitt, B. D. "Effect of Task Demands on Dual Coding of Pictorial Stimuli." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 8 (1982): 73-80.

D'Agostino, P. R., B. J. O'Neill and Allan Paivio. "A Memory for Pictures and Words as a Function of Level Processing: Depth or Dual coding?" Memory and Cognition. 5:2 (1977): 252-256.

Hanson, LuEtt. "Perceptions of Between-Channel Redundancy in Television Messages." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Hartan, F. R. "Recognition Learning Under Multiple Channel Presentations and Testing Conditions." AV Communication Review. 9 (1961): 24-43.

Mayer, R.E. and R. B. Anderson. "Animations Need Narrations: An Experimental Test of a Dual-Coding Hypothesis." Journal of Educational Psychology. 83:4 (1991): 484-490.

Paivio, Allan. "dual coding Theory: Retrospect and Current Status." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 45:3 (1991): 255-287.

Paivio, Allan. Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986

Paivio, Allan. "The Empirical Case for Dual Coding." In J. C. Yuille (Ed.) Imagery, Memory and Cognition. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983).

Paivio, Allan and W. Lambert. "Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 1981 (20): 532-539.

Paivio, Allan and A. Desrochers. "A Dual-coding Approach to Bilingual Memory." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 1980 (34): 390-401.

Paivio, Allan. "Dual Coding: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Evidence." In J. M. Scandura and C. J. Brainerd. (Eds.) Structural/Process Models of Complex Human Behavior. (Leiden: Nordhoff, 1978).

Paivio, Allan. "Coding Distinctions and Repetition Effects in Memory." In G. H. Bower (Ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Vol. 9 (New York: Academic Press, 1975).

Paivio, Allan. Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1971

Pellegrino, J.W., A. W. Siegel, and M. Dhawan. "Short Term Retention of Pictures and Words: Evidence for Dual Coding Systems." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1975 (104): 95-102.

Simpson, Timothy J. "Message Into Medium: An Extension of the Dual Coding Hypothesis." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Snodgrass, J. G., B. Wasser, M. Finkelstein and L. B. Goldberg. "On the Fate of Visual and Verbal Memory Codes for Pictures and Words: Evidence for a Dual Coding Mechanism in Recognition memory." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 13 (1974): 27-37.

Sonnenschein, S. and G. J. Whitehurst. "The Effects of Redundant Communications on the Behavior of Listeners: Does a Picture Need a Thousand Words? Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 11 (1982): 115-125.

V. Education/Teaching/Learning

V A. Learning

Alesandrini, K.L. "Pictorial-verbal and Analytic-holistic Learning Strategies in Science Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology. 73 (1981): 358-368.

Alesandrini, K.L. "Pictures and Adult Learning." Instructional Science. 13 (1984): 63-77.

Bedford, R. "Constraints on Learning New Mappings Between Perceptual Dimensions." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 15 (1989): 232-248.

Dwyer, F. M. Strategies for Improving Visual Learning. State College, PA: Learning Services, 1978.

Hortin, John. "Theoretical Foundations of Visual Learning." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 5-29.

Levin, J. R., B. J. Dretzke, C. B. McCormick, T. E. Scruggs, J. E. McGivern and M. A. Mastropieri. "Learning via Mnemonic Pictures: Analysis of the Presidential Process." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 31 (1983): 161-173.

Levin, J. R. "Pictorial Strategies for School Learning: Practical Illusions." In M. Pressley and J. R. Levin. (Eds.) Cognitive Strategy Research: Educational Applications. (New York: Spinger-Verlag, 1983): 213-237.

Liu, I. "Common and Specific Features in Pictorial Analogies." Memory and Cognition. 9 (1981): 515-523.

Lutz, Kathy and Richard J. Lutz. "Effects of Interactive Imagery on Learning: Application to Advertising." Journal of Applied Psychology. 62 (1977): 493-498.

Martin, D. S. and C. Williams. "A Cognitive Skill Development Program: Possible Breakthrough for Visual Literacy?" Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 3:1 (1983): 45-50.

Paivio, Allan. "Abstractness, Imagery, and Meaningfulness in Paired-associate Learning." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. 4 (1964): 32-38.

Pettersson, Rune. "Associations From Pictures." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Royer, J. M. and G. W. Cable. "Illustrations, Analogies, Facilitative Transfer in Prose Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology. 68 (1976): 205-209.

Salomon, Gavriel. "Television is 'Easy' and Print is 'Tough': The Differential Investment of Mental Effort in Learning as a Function of Perceptions and Attributions." Journal of Educational Psychology. 76 (1984): 647-658.

Salomon, Gavriel. Interaction of Media, Cognition, and Learning. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass, 1979.

Salomon, Gavriel. "Media and Symbol Systems as Related to Cognition and Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology. 71 (1979): 131-148.

Salomon, Gavriel. "Can We Affect cognitive Skills Through Visual Media?" AV Communication Review. 20:4 (1972): 401-423.

Sless, D. Learning and Visual Communication. (New York: Wiley, 1981).

Standing, L. "Learning 10,000 Pictures." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 25 (1973): 107-222.

Winn, W.D. "Visualization in Learning and Instruction: A cognitive Approach." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30:1 (1982): 3-25.

V A1. Comprehension/Understanding

Bransford, John D. and Marcia K. Johnson. "Consideration of Some Problems of Comprehension." In William G. Chase (Ed.) Visual Information Processing. (New York: Academic Press, 1972).

Goldsmith, E. "Comprehensiblity of Illustration: An Analytical Model." Information Design Journal 1 (1980): 204-213.

Honeck, R. P. , B. M. Sowry, and K. Voegtle. "Proverbial Understanding in a Pictorial Context." Child Development. 49 (1978): 327-331.

Honeck, R. P., K. Voegtle, and B. M. Sowry. "Figurative Understanding of Pictures and Sentences." Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. 10 (1981): 135-153.

Pailliotet, Ann Watts. "Understanding Visual Information Through Deep Viewing." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Pettersson, Rune. "Comprehensibility." In Nikos Metallinos, (Ed.) Verbo-Visual Literacy. International IVLA Symposium, Delphi Greece, 1993.

Wartofsky, Marx W. "Pictures, Representation and Understanding." In R. Rudner and I. Scheffler (Eds.) Logic and Art: Essays in Honor of Nelson Goodman. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972).

Wartofsky, Marx W. Models--Representation and the Scientific Understanding. (Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel, 1979).

V A2. Development/Children's Learning

Abelman, Robert. "You Can't Get There from Here: Children's Understanding of Time-Leaps on Television." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 34 (4), 1990, 469-476.

Acker, S. R. and R. K. Tiemens. "Children's Perception of Changes in Size of Televised Images." Human Communication Review. 7 (1981): 340-346.

Ackerman, B. P. "The Effects of Specific and Categorical Orienting on Children's Incidental and Intentional Memory for Pictures and Words." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 39 (1985): 300-325.

Anderson, D. R., L. F. Alwitt, E. P. Lorch and S. R. Levin. "Watching Children Watch Television." In G. A. Hale and M. Lewis (Eds.) Attention and Cognitive Development (New York: Plenum, 1979), 331-361.

Bacharach, V. R., T. H. Carr, and D.S. Mehner. "Interactive and Independent Contributions of Verbal Descriptions to Children's Picture Memory." Journal of Experimental Child Development. 22 (1976): 492-497.

Banks, M. S. and P. Salapqtek. 'Infant Visual Perception." In M. M. Haith and J. Campos (Eds.) Infancy and Biological Development. Vol. 2 of P. Mussen (Ed.) Handbook of Child Psychology. (New York: Wiley, 1983).

Bird, J.E. and A. F. Bennett. "A Developmental Study of Recognition of Pictures and Nouns." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 18 (1974): 117-126.

Brooks, P. H. "The Role of Action Lines in Children's Memory for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 23 (1977): 98-107.

Brown, A. L. and M. S. Scott. "Recognition Memory for Pictures in Preschool Children." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 11 (1971): 401-412.

Buettner, S. "John Dewey and the Visual Arts in America." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 33, 1975: 383-391.

Cann, A. and S. R. Newbern. "Sex Stereotype Effects in Children's Picture Recognition." Child Development. 55 (1984): 1085-1090.

Cavin, Erica. "In Search of the Viewfinder: A Study of a Child's Perspective." Visual Sociology. ( Spring 1994): 27-41.

Calvert, Sandra. "Television Production Feature Effects on Children's Comprehension of Time." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9, 1988: 263-273.]

Cleaver, Betty P., Pamela Scheurer, Mary E. Shorey. "Children's Response to Silhouette Illustrations in Picture Books." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Comuntzis-Page, Georgette. "Please Won't You Be My Neighbor: Investigating Young Children's Knowledge of the Spatial Layout of Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood of Make-believe." Visual Communication 8, Feather River CA, 1994.

Comuntzis-Page, Georgette. "Children's Comprehension of Changing Viewpoints in Visual Presentations." First Annual Visual Communication Conference, Alta Utah, 1987.

Comuntzis-Page, Georgette. "Perspective-Taking Theory: Shifting Views from Sesame Street." Visual Communication 5, Breckenridge, CO, 1991.

DePaulo, B. M. and R. Rosenthal. "Age Changes in Nonverbal Decoding as a Function of Increasing Amounts of Information." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 26 (1978): 280-287.

DiLollo, V., J. L. Arnett, and R. V. Kruk. "Age Related Changes in Rate of Visual Information Processing." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 8 (1982): 225-237.

Dirks, J. and Ulrich Neisser. "Memory for Objectives in Real Scenes: The Development of Recognition and Recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 23 (1977): 315-328.

Fantz, R. L. "The Origins of Form Perception." Scientific American. 204 (1961): 66-72.

Fisher, C. B. and L. G. Braine. "Left-right Coding in Children: Implications for Adult Performance." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 20 (1982): 305-307.

Flavell, J.H. Cognitive Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall;

Flavell, J. H. , E. R. Flavell, and F. L. Green. "Development of the Appearance-reality Distinction." Cognitive Psychology. 15 (1983): 95-120.

Forisha, B. D. "Mental Imagery Verbal Processes: A Developmental Study." Developmental Psychology. 1975 (11): 259-267.

Fredette, Barbara. "Issues in Identifying Visually Gifted Young Children." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Fredette, Barbara. "Identifying the Visually Gifted: A Case Study." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Gardner, Howard. "On the Acquisition of First Symbol Systems." Studies in Visual Communication. 3:1 (Spring, 1976): 22-37.

Gardner, Howard. The Arts and Human Development. (New York: Wiley, 1973).

Gardner, Howard. Art, Mind, and Brain: A Cognitive Approach to Creativity. (New York: Basic Books, 1982).

Gibson, E. J. and E. S. Spelke. "The Development of Perception." In J. H. Flavell and E. Markman (Eds.) Cognitive Development. Vol. 3. of P. Mussen (Ed.) Handbook of Child Psychology. (New York: Wiley, 1983).

Gibson, E. J. and R. D. Walk. "The 'Visual Cliff'." Scientific American. 202 (1960): 64-71.

Gross, T.F. Cognitive Development. Monterey CA: Brooks/Cole, 1985.

Guttman, J., J.R. Levin and M. Pressley. "Pictures, Partial Pictures, and Young Children's Oral Prose Learning." Journal of Educational Psychology. 69 (1977): 473-480.

Haring, M.J. and M. A. Fry. "Effect of Pictures on Children's comprehension of Written Text." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27:3 (1979): 185-190.

Held, R. M. "Binocular Vision: Behavioral and Neuronal Development." In J. Mehler and R. Fox. (Eds.) Neonate Cognition. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1985).

Higgins, L.C. "A Factor Analysis Study of Children's Picture Interpretation Behavior." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 26:3 (1978): 215-232.

Higgins, L.C. "Literalism in the Young Child's Interpretation of Pictures." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28:2 (1980): 99-119.

Hochberg, Julian and Virginia Brooks. "Pictorial Recognition as an Unlearned Ability: A Study of One Child's Performance." American Journal of Psychology. 75, 1962: 624-628.

Hofsten, C. von. "Early Spatial Perception Taken in Reference to Manual Action." Acta Psychologica. 63 (1986): 323-335.

Hollenberg, C. K. "Functions of Visual Imagery in Learning and Concept Formation of Children." Child Development. 41 (1970): 1003-1015.

Houston, Aletha, D. Greer, J. C. Wright, R. Welch and R. Ross. "Children's Comprehension of Televised Formal Features with Masculine and Feminine Connotations." Developmental Psychology. 20 (1984): 707-716.

Ironsmith, M. "Recognition Memory for Components of Pictures in Children and Adults." Child Development. 51 (1980): 899-901.

Kee, D. W. and L. G. Helfend. "Developmental Differences in the Encoding of Spatial-Orientation Information." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 21 (1983): 381-383.

Levin, J. R., E. S. Ghatala, T. M. DeRose, and L. A. Makoid. "Image Tracing: An Analysis of Its Effectiveness in Children's Pictorial Discrimination Learning." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 23 (1977): 78-83.

Levin, J.R. and J. K. Berry. "Children's Learning of All the News That's Fit to Picture." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28:3 (1980): 177-185.

Levin, J.R. P. Divine-Hawkins, S. Kerst and J. Guttman. "Individual Differences in Learning from Pictures and Words: The Development and Application of an Instrument." Journal of Educational Psychology. 22 (1974): 296-303.

Luszcz, M. A. and V. R. Bacharach. "Preschoolers' Picture Recognition Memory: The Pitfalls of Knowing How a Thing Shall Be Called. " Canadian Journal of Psychology. 34 (1980): 155-160.

Mackworth, N. H. and J. S. Burner. "How Adults and Children Search and Recognize Pictures." Human Development. 13 (1970): 149-177.

Mandler, J. M. and C. A. Robinson. "Developmental Changes in Picture Recognition." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 26 (1978): 122-136.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Children's Perception, Retention, and Preference of Asymmetrical Composition in Pictures." Visual Literacy Association, Lexington, KT, 1981.

Meltzer, L. J. "Visual Perception: Stage One of a Long-term Investigation into Cognitive Components of Achievement." British Journal of Educational Psychology 52 (1982): 144-154.

Meyers, P.R. "Children's Memory for Sequentially Presented Words and Pictures.: Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 1:1 (1981): 7-30.

Odum, P. B. and N. H. Nesbitt. "Some Processes in Children's Comprehension of Linguistically and Visually Depicted Relationships." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 17 (1974): 399-408.

Olson, R. K. "Children's Sensitivity to Pictorial Depth Information." Perception and Psychophysics. 17 (1975): 59-64.

Paine, P. A. "Eidetic Imagery and Recall Accuracy in Preschool children." Journal of Psychology. 105 (180): 253-258.

Pettersson, Rune. "Pictorial Capabilities of Comprehensive School Students." Educational Technology Research and Development. 3 (1989): 113-114.

Piaget, J. and B. Inhelder. Mental Imagery in the Child. (New York: Basic books, 1971).

Pressley, G. M. "Imagery and Children's Learning: Putting the Picture in Developmental Perspective." Review of Educational Research. 47 (1977): 585-622.

Pressley, M. and J.R. Levin. "Learning via Mnemonic Pictures: Analysis of the Presidential Process." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 31:3 (1978): 161-171.

Presson, C. C. "The Development of Map-reading Skills." Child Development. 53 (1982): 196-199.

Ramos-Ford, V. and Howard Gardner. "Giftedness from a Multiple Intelligence Perspective." In N. Colangelo and G. A Davis (Eds.). Handbook of Gifted Education. (Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & BAcon, 1991): 55-64.

Ramsey, I.L. "Children's Responses to Selected Art Styles." Journal of Educational Research. 83:1 (1989): 46-52.

Ramsey, I.L. "Primary Children's Ability to Distinguish Between Illustration Styles," Journal of Visual Literacy. 9:2 (1989): 69-82.

Rohwer, W.D. Jr. "Images and Pictures in Children's Learning: Research Results and Educational Implications." Psychological Bulletin. 73 (1970): 393-403.

Scarborough, H. S. "Development of Visual, Name, and Conceptual Memory Codes for Pictures." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 25 (1977): 260-278.

Silver, R. A. "Using Art to Evaluate and Develop Cognitive Skills." American Journal of Art Therapy. 16 (October, 1976): 11-19.

Slater, A., V. Morison, and D. Rose. "Visual Memory at Birth." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 73 (1982): 519-525.

Salomon, Gavriel. "Television Watching and Mental Effort: A Social Psychological View." In J. Bryant and D.R. Anderson (Eds.). Children's Understanding of Television. (New York: Academic Press, 1983: 181-198).

Smith, Robin, Daniel Anderson and Catherine Fischer. "Young Children's Comprehension of Montage." Child Development, 56 (4), 1985: 962-971.

Spelke, E. S. "Where Perceiving Ends and Thinking Begins: The Apprehension of Objects in Infancy." In A. Yonas (Ed.) Perceptual Development in Infancy. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. Vol. 20. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1988).

Spelke, E. S. "Preferential Looking Methods as Tools for the Study of Cognition in Infancy." In G. Gottlieb and N. Krasnegor (Eds) Measurement of Audition and Vision in the First Year of Postnatal Life. (Norwood NJ: Ablex, 1985).

Steri, A. and E. S. Spelke "Haptic Perception of Objects in Infancy." Cognitive Psychology. 20 (1988): 1-23.

Walk, R. D. Perceptual Development. (Belmont CA: Brooks/Cole, 1981).

Yonas, A. and E. E. Granrud. "The Development of Sensitivity to Kinetic, Binocular and Pictorial Depth Information in Human Infants." In D. Ingle, D. Lee, and M. Jeannerod (Eds.) Brain Mechanisms and Spatial Vision. (Amsterdam: Nijhoff, 1984).


V B. Visual Literacy

Ausburn, L.J. and F. B. Ausburn. "Visual Literacy: Background Theory and Practice." Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 15 (1978): 291-297.

Bopryk, Jeanette. "Visual Literacy in Education--A semiotic Perspective." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 35-49.

Braden, Roberts and Judy Baca: Toward a Conceptual Map for Visual Literacy Constructs," In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Branden (Eds.).Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1990).

Baca, Judy Clark and Roberts A. Braden. "The Delphi Study: A Proposed Method for Resolving Visual Literacy Uncertainties." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1989).

Baca, Judy Clark and Roberts A. Braden. "A Research Approach to the Identification, Clarification and Definition of Visual Literacy and Related Constructs." AECT Annual Convention, Anaheim CA, 1990.

Braden, R.A. and Hortin, J.A. "Identifying the Theoretical Foundations of Visual Literacy. Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 2, 1982: 37-42.

Braden, Roberts A. "Twenty-Five Years of Visual Literacy Research." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1994).

Burbank, Lucille and Dennis W. Pett. "Eight dimensions of Visual Literacy." Instructional Innovator (January, 1983): 25-27.

Cassidy, M.F. and J. Q. Knowlton. "Visual Literacy: A Failed Metaphor." Educational Communications and Technology Journal. 31, 1983: 67-90.

Curtiss, Deborah. "The Rewards of Visual Literacy: An Artist's Perspective," In Nikos Metallinos, (Ed.), Verbo-Visual Literacy, International IVLA Symposium Conference Proceedings, Delphi Greece, 1993: 51-56 .

Dake, Dennis M. "Process Issues in Visual Literacy." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Dake, Dennis M. Curriculums in Visual Literacy. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 1982).

Debes, John. "The Loom of Visual Literacy: An Overview." In C. M. Williams and J. L. Debes (Eds.) Proceedings: First National Conference on Visual Literacy. (New York: Pitman, 1970): 1-16.

Debes, John. "Some Foundations for Visual Literacy." Audiovisual Instruction. 13, 1968: 961-964;

Debes, John. "The Loom of Visual Literacy." Audiovisual Instruction. 14 (8), 1969: 25-27.

Dwyer, F. "The Contributions Offered by Research to the Ongoing Evolutionary Development of Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 2:2 (1982): 62-66.

Dwyer, F. "Visual Literacy's First Dimension: Cognitive Information Acquisition." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 7-16.

Dwyer, F., H. DeMelo and M. Szabo. "Visual Testing: Visual Literacy's Second Dimension." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 1:1 (1981): 37-48.

Kerns, H. Dan. "Improving Visual Literacy in Television Production Courses." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Branden (Eds.).Visual Communication, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1991).

Lamberski, R. J. "Visual Literacy: Emerging and Diverging Points of View." AECT Research and Theory Newsletter 5:3 (1976): 1.

Leahy, Susan B. "Visual Literacy: Investigation of Visual Literacy Concepts as Historically Developed in the Writings of Selected Western Philosophers from the Pre-Socratics to Commenius." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts A. Braden, (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Messaris, Paul. "Visual Literacy and Visual Culture." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Messaris, Paul. "Analog, Not Digital: Roots of Visual Literacy and Visual Intelligence." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

Messaris, Paul. "Visual 'Literacy': A Theoretical Synthesis." Communication Theory. 4 (1993): 277-294.

Messaris, Paul. Visual Literacy vs. Visual Manipulation." Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 11 (June 1994), 181-203

Messaris, Paul. "Perceptual Bases of Visual Literacy." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Messaris, Paul. "To What Extent Does One Have to Learn to Interpret Movies?" In S. Thomas (Ed.). Film/Culture: Explorations of Cinema in its

Messaris, Paul. "Cognitive Consequences of Visual-'Literacy" Curricula: A Whorfian Perspective." Visual Communication 6, Flagstaff AZ, 1992.

Messaris, Paul. "Visual 'Literacy'" What is It? How Do We Measure It? visual Communication 5, Breckenridge CO, 1991.

Messaris, Paul. "Viewers' Interpretations of Associational Montage: The Influence of 'Visual Literacy' and Educational Background." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Conference, Washington D.C., 1989.

Miller, LaVerne. "Fun With Pictures, Puns and American Idioms--or Madison Avenue Helps Teach Visual, Verbal, and Cultural Literacy." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Pettersson, Rune. "Visual Literacy." In The International Encyclopedia of Education. 2nd ed. (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1994).

Pettersson, Rune. "Visual Literacy." Frame Work: A Journal of Images and Culture. 2:1 (1988): 34-42.

Robinson, Rhonda. "Investigating Visual Literacy: Developing Skills Across the Curriculum." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Schallert-Lawrie, Patricia. "Visual Literacy and Communications." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1989).

Schamber, Linda. "A Content-Driven Approach to Visual Literacy: Gestalt Rediscovered." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Norman OK, 1986.

Schamber, Linda. "Core Course in Visual Literacy for Ideas, not Techniques." Journalism Educator 46 (1991): 16-21.

Seels, Barbara. "Visual Literacy: The Definition Problem." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: (Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 97-112.

Semali, Ladislaus. "Integrating Visual Literacy Across the Curriculum." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Spitzer, D.R. and T. O. McNerny. "Operationally Defining 'Visual Literacy,' A Research Challenge." Audiovisual Instruction. 20:7 (1975): 30-31.

Sutton, Ronald E. "Subliminal Seduction or Visual Illiteracy?" In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Walker, Alice D. "Developing the Schemata of Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual Literacy. 12:2 (Autumn, 1992): 75-87.

Griffin, R. E. and J. A. Whiteside. "Visual Literacy: A Model for Understanding the Discipline." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging 4:2 (1984): 65-74.

Zettl, Herb. "The Age of Pixels: A Call for Visual Literacy." In Nikos Metallinos (Ed.), Verbo-Visual Literacy, IVLA International Symposium Conference Proceedings, Delphi Greece, 1993 : 5-9.

V B1. Media Literacy

Anderson, Neil. "Impact & Images: Making A Case for Media Literacy in the Classroom." Media & Values. 57 (Winter, 1992): 16-17.

Hobbs, Renee. "The Development of Teachers' Media Literacy Skills: A Report on the Billerica Initiative." Visual Communication 9. Flagstaff AZ: 1995.

Salomon, Gavriel. "Television Literacy vs. Literacy. Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 2, Fall, 1982: 7-16.

Streibel, M. J. "Visual Literacy, Television Literacy and Computer Literacy: Some Parallels and a Synthesis." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 5:2 (1985): 5-14.

Sutton, Ronald E. "Information Literacy Meets Media Literacy and Visual Literacy." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

V B2. Critical Viewing

Adams, D. M. and M. Hamm. "Teaching Students Critical Viewing Skills." Curriculum Review 26 (3): 29-31.

Brown, J. Television Critical Viewing Skills Education: Major Literacy Projects in the United States and Selected Countries. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1991).

Couch, Rich. "Critical Viewing of Television." The Visual Literacy Review. 25:2 (April, 1995): 5,7.

Desmond, R. J. and S. Jeffries-Fox. "Elevating Children's Awareness of Television Advertising: The Effects of a Critical Viewing Program." Communication Education. 32 (1983): 107-115.

Finn, P. "Developing Critical Television Viewing Skills." Educational Forum. 44 (1980): 473-482.

Gnizak, Eleanor P. and Rita Girshman. "Critical Thinking-Visual Thinking: Applications for Research and Production." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Hefzallah, I.M. Critical Viewing of Television. Lanhan, MD: University Press of America, 1987).

Lloyd-Kolkin, D. "Teaching Students to Become Television Viewers." Journal of Educational Television. 8 (1982): 88-108.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Approaches to Visual Communication Media Criticism and Their Application to Television Genres." In d. G. Beauchamp, R. A. Braden, and R. E. Griffin, (Eds.). Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1995).

Rood, Carrie Marie. "Critical Viewing and the Relevance of the Emotional Experience." Visual Communication 9. Flagstaff AZ, 1995.

Shutkin, D. S. "Video Production Education: Towards a Critical Media Pedagogy." Journal of Visual Literacy. 10:2 (1990): 42-59.

Sutton, Ronald E. "Watch: Critical Viewing Guide for Children." In R.A. Braden, D.G. Beauchamp, and L.W. Miller (Eds.). Visible and Viable: The Role of Images in Instruction and Communication. (Commerce TX: International Visual Literacy Association, 1987).

Watkins, L.T., J. Sprafkin, K.D. Gadow, and I. Sadetsky. "Effects of a Critical Viewing Skills Curriculum on Elementary School Children's Knowledge and Attitudes about Television. Journal of Educational Research, 81 (1988): 165-170.

White, N. Inside Television: A Guide to Critical Viewing. (Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books, 1980).

V C. Teaching

DeMelo, H. and F. M. Dwyer. "The Effect of Visual Testing in Assessing the Instructional Potential of Variables Associated with Visualized Instruction." Journal of Instructional Psychology. 10 (3): 126-138.

Hortin, John A. and Gerald D. Bailey. "Visualization: Theory and Applications for Teaching." Reading Improvement. 20:1 (1983): 70-74.

Pettersson, Rune, Nikos Metallinos, Robert Muffoletto, J. Shaw. and Yasuo Takakuwa. "The Use of Verbo-Visual Information in Teaching of Geography--Views from Teachers." In J. Clark-Baca, D. G. Beauchamp and R. A. Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1992: 211-222. Also published in Educational Technology Research and Development 41:1 (1993): 101-107.

V C1. Instructional Media/Ed Tech

Bennett, L. "The Effect of Varying Visual Activities to Impact Cognitive Processing and the Achievement of Educational Objectives." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.)Visual Communication, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1991).

Blinn, Lynn M. "Pre- and Post-Definitions of Family: A Method for Testing Effects of Visual and Verbal Instructional Strategies." AECT, Anaheim CA, 1985.

Cohen, P. A. , B. J. Ebeling, and J. A. Kulik. "A Meta-analysis of Outcome Studies of Visual-based Instruction." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 29 (1981): 26-36.

Dwyer F. "The Effect of Visualized Instruction and Varied Rehearsal and Evaluation Strategies (Verbal and Visual) in Facilitating Students' Long-term Retention on Tests Measuring Different Instructional Objectives." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:2 (1985): 15-28.

Dwyer, F. and H. DeMelo. "A Systematic Assessment of the Effects of Visual Testing of Visualized Instruction: A Justification for Instructional Congruency." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 4:1 (1984): 53-66.

Gueulette, David G. "Curriculum: Managed Visual Reality." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Hunter, John M. , David M. Moore, and Edward H. Sewell. "The Effects of Teaching Strategy and Cognitive Style on Student Interpretations of Editorial Cartoons." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:2 (Autumn, 1991): 35-56.

Kervin, Denise. "Structure as a Source of Meaning Within Audiovisual Messages." Association for Educational Technology. Dallas, 1984.

Lenze, James S. "Learner Generated Versus Instructor Induced Visual Imagery." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.)

Levin, J. R. "Educational Applications of Mnemonic Pictures: Possibilities Beyond Your Wildest Imagination." In A. Sheikh and K. S. Sheikh. (Eds.) Imagery in Education (Farmingdale NY: Baywood, 1985): 63-87.

Pettersson, Rune. "Combined Learning." Axiom. 5 (April 1995): 37-58.

Pettersson, Rune. "Teachers, Students and Visuals." Journal of Visual Literacy 10:1 (Spring, 1990): 45-62.

Ramsey, I. "Primary Children's Ability to Distinguish Between Illustrative Styles." Journal of Visual Literacy. 9:2 (1989): 69-82.

Sheikh, A. and K. S. Sheikh. (Eds.) Imagery in Education (Farmingdale NY: Baywood, 1985): 63-87.

Smith, Patricia L. and Tillman J. Ragan. "Designing Visual Analogies for Instruction." Journal of Visual Literacy. 10:2, 60-83.

Stredney, Don. "Visual Perception in the Arts and Design: Curricular Issues and Other Musings." In Judy Clark Baca, Darrel G. Beauchamp and Roberts A Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1991. Also in Journal of Visual Literacy. 13:1 (Spring, 1993): 35-52.

Zavotka, S. L. "Spatial Visualization Instruction and the Spatial Ability of College Students." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging 8:1 (1988): 46-55.

V C2. Reading and Writing

Agnew, G. Reed. "Writing Backwards: The Use of Visual Models in Writing." Visible Language. 20:2 (Spring, 1986): 233-243.

Arlin, M., M. Scott and J. Webster. "The Effects of Pictures on Rate of Learning Sight Words: A Critique of the Focal Attention Hypothesis." Reading Research Quarterly. 14:(1978/79): 645-657.

Brooks, L. R. "The Suppression of Visualization in Reading." The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1967 (19): 289-299.

Danberg, S. D. "The Interaction of Picture and Print in Reading Instruction." Reading Research Quarterly. 12 (1976/77): 176-189.

Darlington, Sonjja. "Visual Literacy as the Basis for Writing Experience: A Summer Gifted and Talented Program." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:2 (Autumn, 1991): 77-91.

Grow, Gerald. "The Writing Problems of Visual Thinkers." Association for Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Boston, 1991.

Haber, Ralph N. and L. R. Haber. "Visual Components of the Reading Process." Visual Language 15:2 (1981).

Sinatra, R. Visual Literacy Connections to Thinking, Reading, and Writing. Springfield,, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1986).

Sinatra, "Visual/Spatial Strategies for Writing and Reading Improvement." In A.D. Walker and R.A. Braden (Eds.) Visual Literacy: Enhancing Human Potential. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1984).

Singer, H. "Sight Word Learning With and Without Picture: A Critique of Arlin, Scott, and Webster's Research." Reading Research Quarterly. 15 (1980): 290-310.

Whiteside, J. Alan, Mary F. Whiteside, and Robert E. Griffin. "The Structured Writing Technique of Visually Organizing Content: Its Roots and Fruits." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Willows, D. M. "A Picture is Not Always Worth A Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading." Journal of Educational Psychology. 70 (1978): 255-262.

V C3. Text and Illustrations

Brody, P.J. "Research on Pictures in Instructional Texts: The Need for a Broadened Perspective." Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29:2 (1981): 93-100.

Brody, P.J. "Affecting Instructional Textbooks Through Pictures." In D. H. Jonassen, (Ed.). The Technology of Text. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1982).

Donald, D. R. "The Use and Value of Illustrations as Contextual Information for Readers at Different Progress and Developmental Levels." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 53 (1983): 175-185.

Duchastel, P. C. "Illustrating Instructional Texts." Educational Technology 18 (11): 36-39.

Duchastel, P. and R. Waller. "Pictorial Illustration in Instructional Texts." Educational Technology 19 (11): 20-23.

Haring, M. J. and M. A. Fry. "Effect of Pictures on Children's Comprehension of Written Text." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27 (1979): 185-190.

Hartley, J. Designing Instructional Text. 2nd ed. (New York: Nichols, 1985).

Hayes, D. A. and J. E. Readence. "Transfer of Learning from Illustration-Dependent Text." Journal of Educational Research. 76 (1983): 195-232.

Holliday, L.. G. "Textbook Illustrations: Fact or Filler?" The Science Teacher (December, 1990): 27-29.

Hurt, J.A. "Assessing Functional Effectiveness of Pictorial Representations Used in Text." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 35:2 (1987): 85-94.

Levie, W. H. and R. Lentz. "Effects of Text Illustrations: A Review of Research." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30:4 (1982): 195-232.

Levin, J. R. "On Functions of Pictures in Prose." In F. J. Pirozzolo and M. C. Wittrick (Eds.). Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading. (New York: Academic Press, 1981).

Levin, J. R. and A. M. Lesgold. "On Pictures in Prose." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 26 (1978): 233-243.

Macdonald-Ross, M. "Graphics in Text." In L.S. Shulman (Ed.). Review of Research in Education. (Itasca, Il: Peacock, 1977).

Mayer, R.E. "Systematic Thinking Fostered by Illustrations in Scientific Text." Journal of Educational Psychology. 81:2 (1989): 240-246.

Pressley, M., J.R. Levin, S. Piggott, M. LeComte and D.J. Hope. "Mismatched Pictures and Children's Prose Learning." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 31:3 (1983): 131-143.

Reid, D. J., N. Briggs, and M. Beveridge. "The Effect of Picture Upon the Readability of a School Science Topic." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 53 (1983): 327-335.

Schallert, D. L. "The Role of Illustrations in Reading Comprehension. In R. J. Spiro, B.C. Bruce, and W. F. Brewer (Eds.) Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1980): 503-524.

V C4. Textbook/Instructional Materials Design

Hartley, James. Designing Instructional Text. (London: Nichols, 1978).

Jonassen, D. H. and P. Hawk. "Using Graphic Organizers in Instruction." Information Design Journal. 4 (1984): 58-68.

Leonard, A. "Developing Print Materials in Mexico for People Who Do Not Read." Educational Broadcasting International. 13 (1980): 168-173.

Macdonald-Ross, M. "Graphics in Texts." Review of Research in Education. 5 (1977): 49-85.

Macdonald-Ross, M. "How Numbers are Shown: A Review of Research on the Presentation of Quantitative Data in Texts." AV Communication Review. 25 (1977): 359-410.

Moxley, R. "Educational Diagrams." Instructional Science. 12 (1983): 147-160.

Samuels S. J., E. Biesbrock and P. R. Terry. "The Effect of Pictures on Children's Attitudes Toward Presented Stories." Journal of Educational Research. 67 (1974): 243-246.

Schiferl, Ellen. "Designing Visual Methods of Communicating Visual Content with Art History Software." In Nikos Metallinos, (Ed.), Verbo-Visual Literacy, International IVLA Symposium, Conference Proceedings, Delphi Greece, 1993:.

Sitz, Robert. "Media's Affair With Visuals: Is It Sizzle, or Substance?" Western Social Science Association Annual Conference, 1992.

Zimmerman, M.L. and G. W. Perkin. "Instructing Through Pictures: Print Materials for People Who Do Not Read." Information Design Journal. 3 (1982): 119-134.

V C5. Educational TV/Film/Multi-Media

Baggett, P. and A. Ehrenfeucht. "Encoding and Retaining Information in the Visuals and Verbals of an Educational Movie." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 31 (1983): 23-32.

Baron, L.J. "Televised Literacy Curriculum in Action: A Long-Term Study." Journal of Educational Television. 11 (1): 49-55.

Burke, K. "Windows and Frames: Another Approach Toward a Theory of Multi-Image." International Journal of Instructional Media. Part I 18 (3): 243-254; Part II 18 (4): 313-325.

Erdman, Barbara E. "A Formal Analysis of the Teaching Film" Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:1 (Spring, 1991): 38-74.

Ferrington, Gary. "Audio Design: Creating Multi-Sensory Images for the Mind." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 61-68.

Goldstein, E. B. "The Perception of Multiple Image." AV Communication Review. 23 (1975): 34-68.

Griffin, Michael. "Defining Visual Communication for a Multi-media World." Journalism Educator. 16:1 (Spring 1991): 9-15.

Jonassen, D. H. "Implications of Multi-Image for Concept Acquisition." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27:4 (1979): 291-302.

Leifer, A. D. "Teaching With Television and Film." In N. L. Gage (Ed.) The Psychology Teaching Methods. 75th Yearbook. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976).

Marchant, H. "Increasing the Effectiveness of Educational Films: A Selected Review of Research." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 8 (1977): 89-96.

Nadaner, D. "Toward an Analysis of the Educational Value of film and Television." Interchange. 1983: 43-55.

Pettersson, Rune. "Classification of Navigational Principles in Multimedia Systems." Multimedia Information, The Second International Information Research Conference, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK, 1991.

Whiteside, H. Custer. "Can Multi-Image Presentations Be Affective and Effective in Education?" In R.A. Braden, D.G. Beauchamp, and L.W. Miller (Eds.). Visible and Viable: The Role of Images in Instruction and Communication. (Commerce, TX: The International Visual Literacy Association, 1987).

V C6. Computers in Education

Alesandrini, K.L. "Computer Graphics in Learning and Instruction." In H.A. Houghton and D. M. Willows (Eds.). The Psychology of Illustration, Volume 2: Instructional Issues. (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987).

Allen, B.S., R. P. Hoffman, J. Kompella and T. G. Sticht. "Computer-based Mapping for Curriculum Development." In M.R. Simonson and K. Abu-Omar (Eds.). 15th Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations (RTD/AECT). (Ames, IA: Iowa State University, 1993.)

Baek, Y. and B. Layne. "Color Graphics and Animation in a Computer Assisted Learning Tutorial Lesson." Journal of Computer-Based Instruction. 15 (4): 131-135.

Baker, P. R. and S. L. Zavotka. "Spatial Cognition as an Enabling Tool for the Production of Three dimensional Computer Generated Animation: An Issue for Educational Researchers." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 4:1 (1984): 41-46.

Duchastel, P.C. "Display and Interaction Features of Instructional Texts and Computers." British Journal of Educational Technology. 19:10 (1988): 58-65.

Duin, A.H. "Computer-Assisted Instructional Displays: Effects on Students' computing Behaviors, Prewriting, and Attitudes." Journal of Computer Based Instruction. 15:2 (1988): 48-56.

Friedhoff, R.M. Visualization: The Second Computer Revolution. (New York: Abrams, 1989).

Grabinger, R. S. "Screen Layout Design: Research into the Overall Appearance of the Screen." Computers in Human Behavior 5 (1989): 175-183.

Grabinger, R.S. "Computer Screen Designs: Viewer Judgments." Educational Technology Research and Development 41:2 (1993): 35-73.

Hartley, J. "Designing Electronic Text: The Role of Print-Based Research." Educational Communications and Technology Journal. 35:1 (1987): 3-17.

Jones, M.G. "Visuals for Information Access: A New Philosophy for Screen and Interface Design." In D.G. Beauchamp, R.A. Braden and R.E. Griffin (Eds.). Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1995).

Lee, C. "Computer Literacy and Visual Literacy: The Education of the Artist." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 7:2 (1987).

Lester, Paul. "Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics." Journalism Educator. 44 (Summer 1989): 13-17, 49.

Nathan, Tracy. "Computer Visualization: Changing the Way We Think." The Futurist. (May-June, 1980), 29-32.

Pettersson, Rune. "Using Digital Image Elements to Produce Schematic Pictures." In D. G. Beauchamp, R.A. Braden and J. Clark-Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1994).

Pettersson, Rune. "Image Data Bases in Art and Science." In R. A. Braden, J. Clark-Baca, and D. G. Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1993).

Reiber, L.P. Computers, Graphics, and Learning. (Dubuque, IA: WCB Brown, 1994).

Reiber, L.P. "Effects of Visual Grouping Strategies of Computer Animated Presentations on Selective Attention in Science." Educational Technology Research and Development. 39:4 (1991): 5-15.

Reiber, L.P. "computer Animation, Incidental Learning, and Continuing Motivation." Journal of Educational Psychology. 83:3 (1991): 318-328.

Reiber, L.P. and A. Kini. "Theoretical Foundations of Instructional Applications of Computer-Generated Animated Visuals." Journal of Computer-Based Instruction. 18:3 (1991): 83-88.

Reiber, L.P. "Animation in Computer-based Instruction." Educational Technology Research and Development. 38:1 (1990): 77-86.

Snetsinger, Wendy and Barabara Grabowski. "Use of Humorous Visuals to Enhance Computer-Based-Instruction." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

VI. Audience Factors/ Effects

Alesandrini, K. L., J. J. Langstaff and M. C. Wittrock. "Visual-verbal and Analytic-holistic Strategies, Abilities, and Styles." Journal of Educational Research 77(1984): 151-157.

Beauchamp, Darrel G. and Sandra R. Dowd. "From Conception to Completion: What Art Students Visualize." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Branden (Eds.) Visual Communication. IVLA conference proceedings, 1991.

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences." New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Grady, Ann M. "Layered Worlds: A Metaphor of Time, Visualizing the Experience of Alzheimer's." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Keitz, S. M. and R. B. Gounard. "Age Differences in Adult's Free Recall of Pictorial and Word Stimuli." Educational Gerontology. 1 (1976): 237-240.

Kirby, J., P. Moore and N. Shofield. "Verbal and Visual Learning Styles." Contemporary Educational Psychology. 13 (1988): 169-184.

Levin, J. R., P. Divine-Hawkins, S. M. Kerst and J. Guttmann. "Individual Differences in Learning from Pictures and Words." Journal of Educational Psychology. 66 (1974): 296-303.

Lombard, Matthew. "Direct Responses to People on the Screen: Television and Personal Space." Communication Research. 22:3 (June 1995): 288-324.

Lovana-Kerr, J. "Cognitive Style Revisited: Implications for Research in Art Production and Art Criticism." Studies in Art Education. 24 (1983): 195-205.

Messaris, Paul and K. Nielsen. "Viewers' Interpretations of Associational Montage: The Influence of Visual 'Literacy' and Educational Background." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Washington D.C., 1979.

Moore, David. M. "Visual Attributes and Cognitive Style: A Program of Research." In Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1990).

Moore, D.M and D. Bedient. "Effects of Presentation Mode and Visual Characteristics on Cognitive Style." Journal of Instructional Psychology. 13 (1986): 19-24.

Olia, Fatemeh. "Visualization and Deafness: A Review of Research." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1989).

Pollack I. and D. Spence. "Subjective Pictorial Information and Visual Search." Perception & Psychophysics. 1968 (3): 41-44.

Powers, P. A., J. L. Andriks, and E. F. Loftus. "Eyewitness Accounts of Females and Males." Journal of Applied Psychology. 64 (1979): 339-347.

Richardson, A. "Verbalizer-Visualizer: A Cognitive Style Dimension." Journal of Mental Imagery. 1 (1977): 109-126.

Rossiter, John R and Larry Percy. "Visual Imagining Ability as a Mediator of Advertising Response." In Keith Hunt (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 5,. (Ann Arbor MI: Association for Consumer Research, 1978).

Schiffman, Carole B. "Visual Dialect: Ethnovisual and Sociovisual Elements of Design in Public Service Communication." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Sinatra, R. "How Learning Style and Brain Processing Contribute to a Richer Understanding of Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 3:2 (1983): 61-68.

Slattery, Karen. "Visual Information in Viewer Interpretation and Evaluation of Television News Stores." Journal of Visual Literacy, 10 (1, 1990) 26-44.

Slee, J. A. "Individual Differences in Visual Imagery Ability and the Retrieval of Visual Appearances." Journal of Mental Imagery. 4 (19890): 93-113.

Smith, Ron F. "A Re-Evaluation of Readers' Reactions to Spot Color, Soft-News Pictures and Design Characteristics." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Portland, 1988.

Wanta, Wayne and Dandan Gao. "Young Readers and the Newspaper: Information Recall and Perceived Enjoyment, Readability, and Attractiveness." Journalism Quarterly 71:4) (Winter 1994): 926-936.

Woodhead, M. M and A. D. Baddeley. "Individual Differences and Memory for Faces, Pictures, and Words." Memory and Cognition. 9 (1981): 368-370.

VI A . Attitudes and Beliefs

Alexander, B. and L. E. Marks. "Aesthetic Preference and Resemblance of Viewer's Personality to Paintings." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 21 (1983): 384-386.

Chevrier, J. and A. DeLorme. "Aesthetic Preferences: Influence of Perceptual Ability, Age, and Complexity of Stimulus. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 50 (1980): 839-849.

Frost, A. G. and M. S. Lindauer. "Preferences for Figural Complexity as a Function of Cognitive Style." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 16 (1980): 221-224.

Hardiman, G. W. and T. Zernich. "The Relative Influence of Parts and Wholes in Shaping Preference Responses to Paintings." Studies in Art Education. 23 (1982): 31-41.

Hurt, Jeffry A. "Visual Preferences of Children: An Analytical Comparison." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:1 (Spring 1991): 85-99.

Myatt, B. and J. M. Carter. "Picture Preferences of Children and Young Adults." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27 (1979): 45-53.

Ramsey, I.L. "Effect of Art Style on Children's Picture Preferences." Journal of Educational Research, 75 (1982): 237-240.

Reid, Leonard N. and David Hann. "Key Visuals As Correlates of Interest in TV Ads." Journalism Quarterly 56 (Winter, 1979): 865-868.

Seiler, W. "The Effects of Visual Materials on Attitudes, Credibility and Retention." Speech Monographs. 38 (1971): 331-334.

Stewig, J. W. "Children's Preferences in Film." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 8:1 (1988): 74-78.

Tyler, Ann C. "Shaping Belief: The Role of the Audience in Visual Communication." Design Issues, 9 (Fall, 1992): 21-29.

Whalen, D. H. and F. A. Blanchard. "Effects of Photographic Evidence on Mock Juror Judgment." Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 12 (1982): 47-61.

VI B. Arousal and Emotion

Effran, J. S. and T. J. Spangler. "Why Grown-ups Cry: A Two-Factor Theory and Evidence from 'The Miracle'." Motivation and Emotion. 3 (1979): 63-78.

Evans, T. and M. R. Denny. "Emotionality of Pictures and the Retention of Related and Unrelated Phrases." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 11 (1978): 149-152.

Parrott, A. C. "Effects of Paintings and Music, Both Alone and in Combination on Emotional Judgments." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 54 (1982): 635-641.

VI C. Creativity/Imagination

Ainsworth-Land, Wayne. "Imaging and Creativity: An Integrating Perspective," Journal of Creative Behavior 16 (Spring 1982): 5-28.

Booth, Wayne C. "The Company We Keep: Self-Making In Imaginative Art, Old and New." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Couch, Richard. "Synectics and Imagery: Developing Creative Thinking Through Images." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Cupchik, G. C. "The Scientific Study of Artistic Creativity." Leonardo. 16 (1983): 1983-195.

Dake, Dennis. "The Visual Definition of Visual Creativity." Journal of Visual Literacy. I 11:1 (Spring, 1991): 100-118.

Dake, Dennis. "New Art Basics: A Visual Approach to Visual Creativity." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Branden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Daniels-McGhee, Susan and Gary A. Davis. "The Imagery-Creativity Connection." Journal of Creative Behavior. 28 (3) 1994, 151-176.

Durio, H. F. "Mental Image and Creativity." Journal of Creative Behavior. 9:4 (1975): 233-244.

Dwyer, Carol A., Mike Moore, and Francis Dwyer. "Covert and Overt Rehearsal Strategies Used to Complement Visualization." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Finke, Ronald. Creative Imagery. (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990).

Flowers, J. H. and C. P. Garbin. "Creativity and Perception." In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, and C. R. Reynolds (Eds.). Handbook of Creativity. (New York: Penum Press, 1989).

Forisha, B. Y. "Mental Imagery and Creativity: Review and Speculations." Journal of Mental Imagery. 2 (1978): 209-238.

Garchik, Morton. Creative Visual Thinking. (New York: Art Direction, 1985).

Gibson, J. J. "Visualizing Conceived as Visual Apprehending Without any Particular Point of Observation." Leonardo. 1974 (7): 41-42.

Goff, Kathy and E. Paul Torrance. "Healing Qualities of Imagery & Creativity." Journal of Creative Behavior. 25:4 (1991): 296-303.

Gordon, William J.J. and Tony Poze. "Conscious/Subconscious Interaction in a Creative Act." Journal of Creative Behavior. 15:1 (1981): 1-10.

Gowon, J. C. "The Production of Creativity through Right Hemisphere Imagery." Journal of Creative Behavior. 13:1 (1979): 39-51.

Herrmann, Ned. "The Creative Brain." Journal of Visual Literacy. 25:4 (1991): 275-295.

Jampole, E. S., B. C. Konopak, J. E. Readance and J. E. Moser. "Using Mental Imagery to Enhance Gifted Elementary Students' Creative Writing." Reading Psychology. 122 (19910: 183-197.

Kennett, Dorothy H. "Discovering Creativity." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Kennett, Dorothy H. "Discovering Creativity." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell E. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Khatena, Joe. Imagery and Creative Imagination. (Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation, 1984.)

Khatena, Joe. "Identification and Stimulation of Creative Imagination Imagery." Journal of Creative Behavior. 12:1 (1978): 30-38.

Khatena, Joe. "Creative Imagination Imagery: Where Is It going?" Journal of Creative Behavior. 10:3 (1976): 189-209.

Koole, Wim. "Imagination Depends on Images." Media Development, 38 (April 1991), 16-17

Lightfoot, Thomas R. "The Shamanic Journey: Direct Access to the Muse." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Long, S. and E. H. Hiebert. "Effects of Awareness and Practice in Mental Imagery on Creative Writing of Gifted Children." In J.A. Niles and R. Lalik (Eds.) Issues in Literacy: A Research Perspective. Thirty-fourth Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. (Rochester NY: National Reading Conference, 1985).

Miller, A. I. "Imagery and Intuition in Creative Scientific Thinking: Albert Einstein's Invention of the Specific Theory of Relativity." In D. B. Wallace and H. E. Gruber (Eds.). Creative People at Work: Twelve Cognitive Case Studies. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989): 170-187.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Advertising Creativity and ELSIE Scores," Journal of Creative Behavior, 22:1 (First Quarter,1988): pp. 71-72.

Parnes, Sidney J. "Visioneering--State of the Art." Journal of Creative Behavior. 21:4 (1987).

Rosenberg, Marvin. "Releasing the Creative Imagination." Journal of Creative Behavior. 10:3 (Third Quarter, 1976): 103-209.

Runco, Mark A. and Michael D. Bahleda. "Implicit Theories of Artistic, Scientific, and Everyday Creativity." Journal of Creative Behavior. 20:2 (Second Quarter, 1986): 93-98.

Roth, Susan King. "Visualization in Science and the Arts." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art and Science. IVLA Annual Conference Proceedings, 1993.

Suler, John R. and Joseph Rizziello. "Imagery and Verbal Processes in Creativity." Journal of Creative Behavior. 21:1 (First Quarter, 1987): 1-6.

Taylor, Irving A. "Psychological Sources of Creativity." Journal of Creative Behavior. 10:3 (1976): 193-202, 218.

Wheeler-Brownlee, George. "Imagination: The Connection Enigma." Journal of Creative Behavior. 19:4 (1985): 155-269

Winters, Arthur A. and Shirley F. Milton. The Creative Connection. (New York: Fairchild, 1975).

VII. Art/Illustration

Ades, Dawn. The Twentieth Century Poster: Design of the Avant Garde. Mildred Freidman, (Ed.) (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984)

Becker, Howard S. Art Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).

Bell, Clive. Art. (New York: Capricorn Books, 1958).

Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, "In Hannah Arendt (Ed.) Illuminations. (New York: Schocken Books, 1969); Also in Curran, J., M. Gurevitch and J. Woollacott. Mass Communication and Society. (London: Edward Arnold, 1976).

Boselie, F. "Ambiguity, Beauty, and Interestingness of Line Drawings." Canadian Journal of Psychology. 37 (1983): 287-292.

Bouwsma, O.K. "The Expression Theory of Art." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Breder, Hans and Herman Rapaport. "The Luminous Object: Video Art and Theory." Visible Language 29:2 (1995): 116-121.

Bryson, Norman, Michael Ann Holly and Keith Moxey, eds. Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

Christopherson, R. "Making Art with Machines: Photography's Institutional Inadequacies." Urban Life and Culture. 3 (April 1974).

Clarke, David J. "The Gaze and the Glance: Competing Understandings of Visuality in the Theory and Practice of Late Modernist Art." Art History 15 (March 1992): 80-98.

Clifton, Jack. The Eye of the Artist. (Cincinnati, OH: North Light Publishers, 1973).

Fredette, Barbara. "What is the Relationships Between Artistic performance and Visual Proficiency?" In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Gardner, Howard, D. Wolf and A. Smith. "The Birth of Artistic Activity: The Symbols of Max and Molly." New York University Education Quarterly. 6 (1975): 13-21.

Goldsmith, E. "Complexability of Illustration: An Analytical Model." Information Design Journal 2 (1984): 245-339.

Gombrich, E. H. The Story of Art. (London: Phaidon, 1972).

Goodman, Nelson. "Art and Authenticity." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Goodman, Nelson. "Art and Inquiry." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Goodman, Nelson. "When is Art?" In D. Perkins and B. Leondar (Eds.) The Arts and Cognition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

Grigg, Robert. "Invincible Ambiguity." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 27 (Winter, 1987): 62-69.

Hanhardt, John G. "Film Image/Electronic Image: The Construction of Abstraction, 1960-1990." Visible Language 29:2 (1995): 138-159.

Henderson, Sally and Robert Landau. Billboard Art. Michelle Feldman (Ed.). (San Francisco: Chronicle Books. N.D.

Herzogenrath, Wulf. "Notes on Video as an Artistic Medium." In Douglas Davis and Allison Simmons (Eds.) The New Television: A Public/Private Art. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977).

Kunzle, David. "Pop Art as Consumerist Realism." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:2 (Spring, 1984): 16-33.

Langer, Susanne. Problems of Art. (New York: Scribner's, 1957).

Langer, Susanne. Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art. (New York: Charles Scribner's, 1953).

Lidov, David. "Rethinking the Fine Arts from a Semiotic Perspective." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Lightfoot, Thomas R. "Dr. Artist." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Lippard, Lucy R. Pop Art (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966).

Marin, Louis. "The Order of Words and the Order of Things in Painting." Visible Language. 23 (Spring/Summer, 1990): 188-203.

Moholoy-Nagy, Laszlo. The New Vision and Abstract of an Artist. 4th ed. (New York: George Wittenborn, 1947).

Munsterberg, Marjorie. "The World Viewed: Works of Nineteenth-Century Realism." Studies in Visual Communication 8:3 (Summer, 1982): 455-69.

Roth, Susan King. "An Investigation into Cognitive Factors Involved in the Drawing Process." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:2 (Autumn, 1991): 57-76.

Rothschild, Lincoln. Forms and Their Meanings in Western Art. New York: S.A. Barnes, 1976.

Schneider, Ira and Beryl Korot (Eds.). Video Art: An Anthology. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).

Sircello, Guy. "Arguing About 'Art.' In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Staniszewski, Mary Anne. Believing is Seeing: Creating the Culture of Art. (New York: Penguin Books, 1995).

Taylor, Joshua C. Learning to Look: A Handbook for the Visual Arts. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1957).

Toogood, A. F. "A Framework for the Exploration of Video as a Unique Art Form." Journal of the University Film Association. 20 (1978): 15-19.

Wolff, Robert Jay. Essays on Art and Learning. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1971).

Zurbrugg, Nicholas. "Jameson's Complaint Video-Art and the Intertextual 'Time-Wall'." Visible Language 29:2 (1995): 214-237.

VII A. Aesthetics

Aschenbrenner, Karl and Arnold Isenberg. (Eds.) Aesthetic Theories: Studies in the Philosophy of Art. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1965).

Becker, Howard S. "Aesthetics, Aestheticians, and Critics." Studies in Visual Communication. 6 (Spring, 1980): 58-68.

Binder D. "The Controversy over Conventionalism" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 41 (1983): 253-264.

Brochmann, Odd. Good or Bad Design? (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970)

Carter, Curtis. "Aesthetics, Video Art and Television." Leonardo 12:4 (Autumn 1979): 289-293.

Currie, Gregory. "Photography, Painting and Perception." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 49 (Winter 1991): 23-29.

Danto, Arthur. "Artworks and Real Things." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Danto, Arthur. Beyond the Brillo Box: The Visual Arts in Post-Historical Perspective. (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1992).

Dickie, George. Aesthetics: An Introduction. (New York: Pegasus/Bobbs-Merille, 1971)

Dickie, George. Evaluating Art. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 1988)

Fiedler, Conrad. On Judging Works of Visual Art. Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1957).

Farley, F. H., A. Cohen, and A. Sanfeliz. "Aesthetic Dimensions and Picture Memory: A Structural Re-Analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 498 (1979); 729-730.

Gombrich, E. H. "Meditations on a Hobby Horse: or, the Roots of Artistic Form." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Gordon, Stephan and Jennifer Wyman. Primer of Perception: Handbook for Artists and Teachers. (New York: Reinhold, 1967).

Hochberg, Julian and E. McAlister. "A Quantitative Approach to Figural "Goodness." Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1953 (46): 361-364.

Kennick, W.E. "Does Traditional Aesthetics Rest on a Mistake?" In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Langer, Suzanne K. "On Artistic Sensibility." Daedalus. 89 (1960): 242-244.

Maquet, Jacques. The Aesthetic Experience: An Anthropologist Looks at the Visual Arts. (New Haven CN: Yale University Press, 1986).

Maquet, Jacques. "Perennial Modernity: Forms as Aesthetic and Symbolic." The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 24 (1990).

Margolis, Joseph. Philosophy Looks at the Arts: Contemporary Readings in Aesthetics. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962).

McManus, I.C. "The Aesthetics of Simple Figures." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 71 (1980): 505-524.

Merrill, David. "What's Good Design?" Folio. 14 (November 1985): 146-153.

Meynell, Hugo A. The Nature of Aesthetic Value. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1986).

Moriarty, Sandra. "The Marketplace Power of Aesthetics: A Model," with Carl Walston, Proceedings of the 1992 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Leonard N. Reid, (Ed.), pp. 214-221.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Badvertising," Advertising Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Comunication, August 1993, Kansas City.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Advertising as Art?" Popular Culture Association, San Antonio TX, March 1991

Newton, Eric. The Meaning of Beauty. (Baltimore MD: Penguin Books, 1962)

Philipson, Morris and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Pye, David. The Nature and Aesthetics of Design. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982).

Schapiro, Meyer. "Style." In Morris Philipson and Paul J. Gudel. (Eds). Aesthetics Today. (New York: Meridian/New American Library, 1980).

Scheffler, Israel. "Reference and Play: E. H. Gombrich's Meditations on a Hobby Horse." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 50 (Summer, 1992): 211-216.

Schroeder, Fred. "Video Aesthetics and Serial Art." In Horace Newcomb (Ed.) Television: The Critical View. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979): 544.

Tarroni, Evelina. "The Aesthetics of Television." In H. Newcomb (Ed.). Television: The Critical View. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979)

Vacker, Barry. "The Marlboro Man as a Twentieth Century David: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Aristotelian Aesthetic of Advertising." In John F. Sherry, Jr. and Brian Sternthal (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 19 (1992): 746-755.

Taylor, Joshua C. Design and Expression in the visual Arts. (New York: Dover, 1964).

Thompson, C. "Why Do You Need to See the Original Painting Anyway?" Visual Resources. 2 (1982): 21-36.

Zangwill, Nick. "Metaphor and Realism in Aesthetics." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 49 (Winter, 1991): 57-62.

VII A1. Perceptual Aesthetics

Barry, Ann Marie. "Perceptual Aesthetics and Visual Language." In Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. David M. Moore and Francis M. Dwyer, eds. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994, 113-132.

Barry, Ann Marie. "Eisenstein's Perceptual Aesthetic: Integrating Film Semiotics and Political Ideology," Framework. 3 (1): 11-22.

Biaggio, M. K. and K. A. Supplee. "Dimensions of Aesthetic Perception." Journal of Psychology. 114 (1983): 29-35.

VII A2. Audience Evaluation/Aesthetic Judgment

Bledsoe, J. C., M. L. Perkins, and D. H. Hoffman. "Comparison of Selected Methods of Measuring Change in Judgment of Art Design." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 51 (1980): 23-28.

D'Onofrio, A. and C. F. Nodine. "Children's Responses to Paintings." Studies in Art Education. 23:1 (1981): 14-23.

Ellis, A. W. and D. Miller. "Left and Wrong in Adverts: Neuropsychological Correlates of Aesthetic Preference." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 72 (1981): 225-229.

Eysenck, H. J. "A New Measure of 'Good Taste' in Visual Art." Leonardo. 16 (1983): 229-231.

Foss, S. K. and A. J. Radich. "The Aesthetic Response to Nonrepresentational Art: A Suggested Model." Review of Research in Visual Arts Education. 12 (1980): 40-49.

Nicki, R. M., P.L. Lee, and V. Moss. "Ambiguity, Cubist Works of Art, and Preference." Acta Psychologica. 49 (1981): 27-41.

Pittenger, J. B., D. F. Johnson and L. S. Mark. "Aesthetic Equivalence of Three Representations of the Face." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 21 (1983): 111-114.

Rush, J. C. and D. L. Sabers. "The Perception of Artistic Style." Studies in Art Education. 23 (1982): 24-32.

Taunton, M. "Aesthetic Responses of Young Children to the Visual Arts: A Review of the Literature." Journal of Aesthetic Education. 16 (1982): 93-109.

VII A3. Aesthetic Education

Alesandrini, K. L. "Pictures and Adult Learning." Instructional Science. 13 (1984): 63-77.

Clements, Robert. "The Inductive Method of Teaching Visual Art Criticism." Journal of Aesthetic Education. 12:3 (July 1979): 67-78.

Fredette, Barbara. "Aesthetics for the 21st Century: Another Challenge for Education." In Nikos Metallinos, (ed). International IVLA Symposium Conference Proceedings, Delphi Greece, 1993: 57-67.

Rush, J. C. and J. Lovano-Kerr. "Aesthetic Education Research, Teaching Art, and Harvard Project Zero: Some Observations." Journal of Aesthetic Education. 16 (1982): 81-91.

Williams, Brian and Woody Goulart. "The Study of Television Aesthetics and Criticism in American Higher Education." Journal of Aesthetic Education 15:1 (January 1981): 93-105.

VII B. Composition

Arnheim, Rudolf. The Power of the Center: A Study of Composition in the visual Arts. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).

Bang, M. Picture This: Perception and Composition. (Boston: Bullfinch Press, 1991).

Clements, Ben and David Rosenfeld. Photographic Composition. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979).

Harlan, C. Vision and Invention. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970).

Herbener, G. F., G. N. Van Tubergen, and S. S. Whitlow. "Dynamics of the Frame in Visual Composition." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27:2 (1979): 83-88.

Metallinos, Nikos and Robert K. Tiemens. "Asymmetry of the Screen: The Effect of Left versus Right Placement of Television Images." Journal of Broadcasting. 21:1 (1977).

Poore, H. R. Pictorial Composition and the Critical Judgment of Pictures. (New York: Sterling, 1967).

VII C. Graphic Design/Layout

Baird, Russell, Duncan McDonald, Ronald Pittman, and Arthur T. Turnbull. The Graphics of Communication. 6th ed. (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993).

Barnhurst, Kevin G. and D. Charles Whitney. "Visual Literacy Training: Changing How Journalism Students Reason About Layout." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Berryman, Gregg. Notes on Graphic Design and Visual Communication. (Los Altos, CA: William Kaufman, 1979).

Blanchard, Russell. Graphic Design. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984).

Buchanon, Richard and Victor Margolin. Discovering Design: Explorations in Design Studies. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

Conover, Theodore E. Graphic Communication Today. 2nd. ed. (St. Paul, MN: West, 1990).

Craig, Robert. "Ideological Aspects of Publication Design." Design Issues 6 (Spring 1990): 18-27.

Crow, Wendell. Communication Graphics. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1986).

Denton, Craig. Graphics for Visual Communication. (Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1992).

Gill, Bob. Forget All the Rules About Graphic Design. (New York: Watson Guptill, 1985).

Gotschall, Edward M. Graphic Communication '80s. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981).

Hanks, Kurt, Larry Belliston and Dave Edwards. Design Yourself! (Los Altos CA: William Kaufmann, 1978).

Hornung, G. P. Handbook of Design and Devices. (New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1959).

Huh, Hyun-Joo. "The Effect of Newspaper Picture Size." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Spring, 1994): 14-18.

Hurlburt, Allen. The Design Concept. (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1981).

Kepes, Gyorgy. Module, Proportion, Symmetry, Rhythm. (New York: George Braziller, 1966).

Korngay, V. "How Teaching Informs Research in Graphics Field Experience." Journalism Educator 48 (Spring, 1991): 38-45.

Knupfer, Nancy N. and Marina S. McIsaac. "The Effects of Varying White Space Around Graphics Within Text." Journal of Visual Literacy 10:1 (Spring 1990: 63-74.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Graphics and Human Information Processing." Journal of the American Statistical Association. 80 (1985): 499-512.

Laing, John. Do-it-yourself Graphic Design. (London: Swallow, 1984).

Maier, Manfred. Basic Principles of Design. (Switzerland: Verlag Paul Haupt Berne, 1977).

Margolin, Victor. Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989).

Mukherjee, Prachee and Gerald S. Edmonds. "Screen Design: A Review of Research." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1995).

Pile, John F. Design. (Amherst MA: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1979).

Rand, Paul. A Designer's Art. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985)

Rand, Paul. Thoughts on Design. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970).

Seidman, Steven A. "A Study of the Visual Design of Corporate Annual Reports." Journal of Visual Literacy. 12:2 (Autumn, 1992): 58-74.

Self, Charles C. and Charles L. Groover, "Form Versus Function: The Philosophy of Speaking to the Human Eye." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, Houston, Texas, 1979.

Thompson, Merton E. "Design Considerations of Visuals." In Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. David M. Moore and Francis M. Dwyer, (Eds.) (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 165-182.

Wills, F. H. Fundamentals of Layout. (New York: Sterling/Dover, 1965).

VII C1. Advertising Design

Bockus, H. William. Advertising Graphics. 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1979.)

Borgman, Harry. Advertising Layout and Techniques. (New York: Watson Guptill, 1983).

Feasley, Florence G. and Elnora W. Stuart. "Magazine Advertising Layout and Design: 1932-1982." Journal of Advertising. 16:2 (1987): 20-25.

Nelson, Roy Paul. The Design of Advertising. (Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1985).

VII C2. Publication Design

Amert, Kay. "The Problem of Style in Publication Design." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, 1979.

Ames, Steven. Elements of Newspaper Design. (New York: Praeger, 1989).

Bain, Chic and David Weaver. "Readers' Reaction to Newspaper Design." Newspaper Research Journal . 2 (July 1979): 48-59.

Barnhurst, Kevin. Seeing the Newspaper (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994).

Barnhurst, Kevin. "Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

Barnhurst, Kevin. "News as Art." Journalism Monographs (December 1991.

Barnhurst, Kevin G. and Alan L. Ellis. "Effects of Modern & Postmodern Styles on Reader Perceptions of News," In Judy Clark Baca, David G. Beauchamp and Roberts N. Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1991).

Bohle, Robert. Publication Design for Editors. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990).

Caputi, Jane. "Charting the Flow: The Construction of Meaning Through Juxtaposition in Media Texts." Journal of Communication Inquiry. 15 (1991): 32-47.

Click, J. W. and Guido H. Stempel III. "Reader Response to Newspaper Front Page Format." Journal of Typographical Research. 2 (1968): 127-141.

Click, J. W. and Guido H. Stempel III. "Rate of Adoption of Modern Format by Daily Newspapers." ANPA News Research Report. 22 (September 1979): 6-10.

Dorn, Raymond. How to Design and Improve Magazine Layouts. 3rd. ed. (Chicago: nelson-Hall, 1980).

Finberg, Howard and Bruce D. Itule. Visual Editing: A Graphic Guide for Journalists. (Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 1990).

Garcia, Mario and Pegie Stark. Eyes on the News. (St. Petersburg, FL: Poynter Institute, 1991).

Garcia, Mario. Contemporary Newspaper Design: A Structural Approach. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987).

Geraci, Philip C. "Comparison of Graphic Design and Illustration Use in Three Washington, D. C., Newspapers." Newspaper Research Journal. 5 (Winter 1983): 29-39.

Geraci, Philip C. "Newspaper Illustrations and Readership: Is USA Today on Target?" Journalism Quarterly. 61 (Summer 1984): 409-413.

Hall, Peter. "Daily Design." U&lc. (Winter 1993): 12-17.

Harrower, Tim. The Newspaper Designer's Handbook. (Dubuque: William C. Brown, 1992).

Heller, Rob. "Great Small Paper Designs." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Summer, 1994): 4-7.

Hollander, Barry A. "Newspaper Graphics and Inadvertent Persuasion." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Winter, 1994): 8-9.

Hurlburt, Allen. The Grid: A Modular System for the Design and Production of Newspapers, Magazines, and Books. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1978).

Hurlburt, Allen. Layout: The Design of the Printed Page. (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1977).

Hurlburt, Allen. Publication Design. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976).

Lockwood, Robert and John Finneman. Newspaper Design 2000 and Beyond. (Reston VA: American Press Institute, 1988).

Lockwood, Robert. News By Design: A Survival Guide for Newspapers. (Denver CO: Quark Press, 1992).

Moen, Daryl. Newspaper Layout and Design. 2nd ed. (Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989).

Nelson, Roy Paul. Publication Design. (Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1987).

Ogan, Christine, Ida Plymale, D. Lynn smith, William H. Turpin and Donald L. Shaw, "The Changing Front Page of The New York Times, 1900-1977." Journalism Quarterly. 52 (1975): 340-344.

Parker, Roger C. Looking Good in Print: A Guide to Basic Design for Desktop Publishing. 2nd. ed. (Chapel Hill, NC: Ventana Press, 1990).

Pasternack, Steve and Sandra H. Utt, "Subject Perceptions of Newspaper Characteristics Based on Front Page Design." Newspaper Research Journal. 8 (Fall 1986): 29-35.

Peterson, Becky K. "Tables and Graphs Improve Reader Performance and Reader Reaction." Journal of Business Communication. 20 (Spring 1983): 20, 47-55.

Roller, Beverly V. "Graph Reading Abilities of 13-year-olds." In Paul A. Kolers, Merald E. Wrolstad and Herman Bouma (Eds) Processing of Visible Language 2. (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 305-314.

Schweitzer, John C., David H. Weaver and Gerald C. Stone. "Morning-Evening Newspaper Circulation: What Effect Do Appearance and Content Have?" Journalism Quarterly. 54 (1977): 515-522.

Schweitzer, John C. "Newspaper Front Pages Revisited: Reader Reactions." Newspaper Research Journal. (October 1980): 12-18.

Siskind, Theresa G. "The Effect of Newspaper Design on Reader Preferences." Journalism Quarterly. 56 (1979): 54-61.

Sissors, Jack Z. "Some New Concepts of Newspaper Design." Journalism Quarterly. 42 (1965): 236-242.

Sissors, Jack Z. "Do Youthful, College-Educated Readers Prefer Contemporary newspaper Designs?" Journalism Quarterly. 71 (Summer 1974): 307-313.

Smith. "How Design & Color Affect Readers' Judgment of Newspapers." Newspaper Research Journal. 10 (Winter 1989): 75-85.

Starett, Marilyn. "The Impact of Publication Cover Design on Readers." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Stanton, James C. "Newspaper Design Preferences Among Students Revisited." Journalism Quarterly. 63 (1986): 633-636.

Stone, Gerald C., John C. Schweitzer and David H. Weaver. "Adoption of Modern Newspaper Design." Journalism Quarterly. 55 (1978): 761-766.

Utt, Sandra H. and Steve Pasternack, "Front Pages of U.S. Daily Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (1984): 879-884.

Utt, Sandra H. and Steve Pasternack. "Use of Graphic Devices in a Competitive Situation: A Case Study of 10 Cities." Newspaper Research Journal.. 7 (Winter 1985): 7-16.

Utt, Sandra H. and Steve Pasternack. "How They Look: An Updated Study of American Newspaper Front Pages." Journalism Quarterly. 66 (Autumn 1989): 621-627.

Vernon, M. D. "Learning from Graphical Material." The British Journal of Psychology. 36 (September 1946): 145-158.

Wainer, Howard. "Making Newspaper Graphs Fit to Print." In Paul A. Kolers, Merald E. Wrolstad and Herman Bouma (Eds) Processing of Visible Language 2. (New York: Plenum Press, 1980): 125-142.

Weaver, David H. and L. E. Mullins. "Content and Format Characteristics of Competing Daily Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 52 (Summer 1975): 257-264.

White, Jan. Designing for Magazines. (New York: R.R. Bowker, 1976)

White, Jan. Editing by Design. (New York: R.R. Bowker, 1982)

White, Jan V. The Grid Book. (Paramus, NJ: Letraset, 1987).

VII C3: Corporate Design

Murphy, John and Michael Row. How to Design Trademarks and Logos. (Cincinnnati OH: North Light Books, 1988).

Opie, Robert. The Art of the Label. (Secaucus NJ: Chartwell Books, 1989).

Savell, Lawrence. "Trademarks 101: The Basics." Editor & Publisher. (December 4, 1993): 23T-26T.

Selame, Elinor and Joe Selame. Developing a Corporate Identity: How to Stand Out in the Crowd. (New York: Chain Store Age Books, 1975).

VII D. Information Graphics

Amlund, Jeane, Janet Gaffney and Raymond Kulhavy. "Map Feature Content and Text Recall in Good and Poor Readers." Journal of Reading Behavior. 17:4 (1985): 317-330.

Arkin, Herbert and Raymond R. Colton. Graphs: How to Make and Use Them. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1940).

Carswell, C. M., S. Frankenberger and D. Bernhard. "Graphing in Depth: Perspectives on the Use of Three-dimensional Graphs to Represent Lower-dimensional Data." Behavior & Information Technology. 10 (1991): 459-474.

Cleveland, William S. and Robert McGill. "Graphical Perception: Theory, Experimentation and Application to the Development of Graphical Methods." Journal of the American Statistical Association. 79 (September 1984): 531-554.

Cleveland, William S. and Robert McGill. "The Many Faces of a Scatterplot." Journal of the American Statistical Association." 79 (1984): 807-822.

Cleveland, William S. and Robert E. McGill. Dynamic Graphics for Statistics. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1988).

Cleveland, William S. The Elements of Graphing Data. (Summit, NJ: Hobart Press, 1994).

Culbertson, Hugh M. and Richard D. Powers. "A Study of Graph Comprehension Difficulties." Audio Visual Communication Review. 7 (Spring 1959): 97-110.

David, Prabu. "Accuracy of Visual Perception of Quantitative Graphics: An Exploratory Study." Journalism Quarterly. 69 (1992): 273-292.

David, Prabu. "Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Graphics in the Mass Media: A Theoretical Framework for Research." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Boston, 1991.

Eells, Walter C. "The Relative Merits of Circles and Bars for Representing Component Parts." Journal of the American Statistical Association." 21 (June 1926): 132.

Feliciano, Gloria D., Richard D. Powers and Bryant E. Kearl. "The Presentation of Statistical Information." AV Communication Review. 11 (May-June 1963): 32-39.

Gentry, James K. and Barbara Zang. "Characteristics of Graphics Managers at Metropolitan Dailies." Newspaper Research Journal. 10:4 (1989): 85-95.

Griffin, Jeffrey L. and Robert L. Stevenson. "The Effectiveness of Locator Maps in Increasing Reader Understanding of the Geography of Foreign News." Journalism Quarterly. 72 (Winter 1995): 937-846.

Griffin, Jeffrey L. and Robert L. Stevenson. "The Effectiveness of 'How Graphics' and Text in Presenting the News." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Spring, 1994): 10-11, 16.

Griffin, Jeffrey L. and Robert L. Stevenson. "Influence of Text and Graphics in Increasing Understanding of Foreign News Content." Newspaper Research Journal. 13 (1992): 84-99.

Griffin, Robert E. "Using Graphs Correctly: What are the Basic Elements for the Language of Graphs." In R.A. Braden, D. G. Beauchamp, L.W. Miller and D. M. Moore (Eds.) About Visuals: Research, Teaching, and Applications. Proceedings of the (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1989).

Hardin, Pris. "A Theoretical Framework for Diagrams and Information Graphics in Research and Education." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

Hilliard, R. D. "The Graphics Explosion: Questions Remain About Roles." Journalism Quarterly. 66 (1989): 192-194.

Hollands, J. G. and Ian Spence. "Judgments of Change and Proportion in Graphical Perception." Human Factors. 34 (1992): 313-334.

Holmes, Nigel. Designers' Guide to Creating Charts and Diagrams. (New York: Watson Guptill, 1984).

Kelly, James D. "The Effects of Display Format and Data Density on Time Spent Reading Statistics in Text, Tables, and Graphics." Journalism Quarterly 70 (1993): 140-149.

Kelly, James D. "The Graph Makers: A Survey of the Newspaper Editorial Workers Who Create Charts and Graphs."Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Minneapolis MN, 1990.

Kelly, James D. "The Data-Ink Ratio and Accuracy of Information Derived From Newspaper Graphs: An Experimental Test of the Theory."Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Portland, OR, 1988.

Kosslyn, Steven M. "Graphics and Human Information Processing." Journal of the American Statistical Association. 80 (September 1985): 499-512.

Kosslyn, Stephen M. "Understanding Charts and Graphs." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 3 (July 1989): 185-226.

Kosslyn, Stephen. Elements of Graphing. (New York: Freeman, 1994).

Lenk, Krzysztof and Paul Kahn. "To Show and Explain: The Information Graphics of Stevin and Comenius." Visible Language. 26:3/4 (Summer/Autumn, 1991): 273-280.

Macdonald-Ross, Michael. "How Numbers Are Shown: A Review of Research on the Presentation of Quantitative Data in Texts." AV Communication Review. 25 (Winter 1977): 359-409.

McGregor, Donald and Paul Slovic. "Graphic Representation of Judgmental Information." Human-Computer Interaction. 3 (1986): 179-200.

Miller, Christine. "(Re)Presenting Reality Visually: Maps as Info-mercials." Speech Communication Association Convention, Miami, FL, 1993.

Miller, Christine, "It's Deja Vu All Over Again: Representing Reality in Cartography." Visual Communication 7, Jackson Hole, WY, 1993.

Miller, Christine. "Cartography and Critical Thinking: The Implications of Visually Abstracting Reality." Speech Communication Association Convention, Atlanta GA, 1991.

Modley, Rudolf and Dyno Lowenstein. Pictographs and Graphs: How to Make and Use Them. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952).

Monmonier, Mark and Val Pipps. "Weather Maps and Newspaper Design: Response to USA Today?" Newspaper Research Journal (Summer 1987): 31-42.

Pasternak, Steve and Sandra H. Utt. "Reader Use & Understanding of Newspaper Infographics." Newspaper Research Journal (Spring, 1990): 28-41.

Peterson, Lewis V. and Wilbur Schramm. "How Accurately Are Different Kinds of Graphs Read?" Audio Visual Communication Review. 2 (Summer 1954): 178-189.

Pettersson, Rune. "Information Graphics at the Turn of Two Centuries." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Pinker, S. "A Theory of Graph Comprehension." In R. Friedle (Ed.), Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Testing. (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1990): 73-126.

Poggenpohl, Sharon H. and Dietmar R. Winkler. "Diagrams as Tools for Worldmaking." Journal of Visible Language. 26:3/4 (Summer/Autumn, 1992): 252-269.

Ramaprasad, Jyotika. "Informational Graphics in Newspapers." Newspaper Research Journal. 12 (Summer 1991): 92-103.

Richards, C. and R. Johnson. "Graphic Codes for Flow Charts." Informational Design Journal. 4 (1980): 261-270.

Schmid, C. F. Statistical Graphics. (New York: John Wiley, 1983).

Schutz, Howard G. "An Evaluation of Formats for Graphic Trend Displays: Experiment II." Human Factors. 3 (April 1961: 99-107.

Simkin, D. and Reid Hastie. "An Information-processing Analysis of Graph Perception." Journal of the American Statistical Association. 82 (1987): 454-465.

Smith, Edward J. and Donna J. Hajash. "Informational Graphics in 30 Daily Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 65:3 (Fall, 1988): 714-718.

Spence, Ian. and S. Lewandowsky. "Graphical Perception." In J. Fox and S. Long (Eds.) Modern Methods of Data Analysis. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1990): 13-57.

Spence, Ian. "Visual Psychophysics of Simple Graphical Elements." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 16 (1990): 683-692.

Spence, Ian and P. Krizel. "Children's Perception of Proportion in Graphs." Child Development. 65 (1994): 1193-1213.

Spence, Ian. "Graphs and Psycho-physics." Visual Communication Quarterly. 2 (Fall 1995): 8-11,

Stark, M. Pegie and Barry A. Hollander. "Information Graphics: Do They Help Readers Understand News Events?" Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Minneapolis, MN, 1990.

Storkerson, Peter. "Explicit and Implicit Graphs: Changing the Frame." Visible Language. 26:3/4 (Summer/Autumn, 1981): 389-433.

Tankard, James W. Jr. "Visual Crosstabs: A Technique for Enriching Information Graphics." Mass Communication Review. 21: 1/2 (1994): 49-66.

Tankard, James W. Jr. "Effects of Chartoons & Three-dimensional Graphs on Interest & Information Gain." Newspaper Research Journal. (Spring, 1989): 91-103.

Tankard, James W. Jr. "Quantitative Graphics in Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly, 64 (1987): 406-415.

Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information, (Cheshire CT: Graphics Press, 1990).

Tufte, Edward. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. (Cheshire CT: Graphics Press, 1983).

Utt, Sandra H. and Steve Pasternack. "Infographics Today: Using Qualitative Devices to Display Quantitative Information." Newspaper Research Journal. 14: 3&4 (Summer-Fall 1993): 146-157.

Vernon, Magdalen D. "The Visual Presentation of Factual Material." British Journal of Educational Psychology. 20 (November 1950): 174-185.

Vernon, Magdalen D. "The Use and Value of Graphical Material in Presenting Quantitative Data." Occupational Psychology. 26 (1952): 22-34.

Vernon, Magdalen D. "The Use and Value of Graphical Materials with a Written Text." Occupational Psychology. 26 (1952): 96-100.

Wagner, David. "Ethical Considerations in the Visual Display of Quantitative Information." Visual Communication 5, Breckenridge, 1991.

Wainer, Howard. "Making Newspaper Graphs Fit to Print." In Paul A. Kolers, Merald E. Wrolstad and Herman Bouma (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language. vol. 2. (New York: Plenum, 1980).

Wainer, Howard. "How to Display Data Badly." American Statistician. 38 (May 1984): 137-147.

Ward, Douglas B. "The Effectiveness of Sidebar Graphics." Journalism Quarterly. 69:2 (Summer, 1991): 318-328.

White, Jan V. Using Charts and Graphs: 1000 Ideas for Visual Persuasion. (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1984).

Wilcox, Walter. "Numbers and the News: Graph, Table or Text?" Journalism Quarterly. 41 (Winter 1964): 38-44.

Winn, W. and W. Holliday. "Design Principles for Diagrams and Charts." In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.) The Technology of Text. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1982): 227-229.

VII E. Computergraphics/Videotex/Electronic Publishing

Bove, Toney, et. al. The Art of Desktop Publishing: Using Personal Computers to Publish it Yourself. (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)

Grabinger, R. S. "Relationships Among Text Format Variables in Computer Generated Text." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging 6:3 (1987.

Jones, Beverly. "Computer Imagery: Imitation and Representation of Realities." Leonardo. Vsupp. (1989): 31-38.

Knupfer, Nancy and Marina S. McIsaac. "Designing Instructional Materials with Desktop Publishing software: The Effects of White-Space Variations on Learning. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 25:1 (1992): 75-87.

Knupfer, Nancy and Marina S. McIsaac. "Desktop Publishing: The Effects of Computerized Formats on Reading Speed and comprehension." Journal of Research on Computing in Education. 22:2 (Winter, 1989): 127-136.

Lester, Paul. "Videotex Design: Color Graphics Versus Text Only." Videodisc and Optical Disk. 4:6 (November-December, 1984): 468-474.

Lester, Paul. "Research on Videotext and Journalism" Videodisc and Optical Disk. 4:5 (September-October, 1984): 372-378.

Misanchuk, E. R. Preparing Instructional Text: Document Design Using Desktop Publishing. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc., 1992).

Meyer, R. C. and b. Knight. "Menu Formatting: A Method for Media Literacy." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 7:2 (1987): 39-45.

Romiszowski, A.J. "Educational Systems Design Implications of Electronic Publishing." Educational Technology. 34:7 (1994): 6-12.

Wilson, S. "Computer Art: Artificial Intelligence and the Arts." Leonardo 16 (1983): 15-20.

VII F. Typography

Barnhurst, Kevin. "Legibility Science and the Visual Design of Newspapers." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Beaumont, Michael. Type (Cincinnnati OH: North Light, 1987).

Carter, Rob, Ben Day and Philip Meggs. Typographic Design: Form and Communication. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985).

Craig, James. Designing with Type. (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1980).

Davenport, J.S. and S. A. Smith. "Effects of Hyphenation, Justification, and Type Size on Readability. Journalism Quarterly, 42 (1965): 381.

Ernst, Sandra Moriarty. ABCs of Typography. (New York: Art Direction, 1977).

Gilreath, Charles T. "Graphic Cueing of Text: The Typographic and Diagraphic Dimensions." Visible Language. 27:3 (1993): 336-361.

Gotshall, Edward M. Typographic Communications Today. (Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1989).

Hooper, S and Hannafin, M.J. "Variables Affecting the Legibility of Computer Generated Text." Journal of Instructional Development. 9:4 (1986): 22-28.

Kolers, P. A., M. R. Wrolstad, and H. Bouma. (Eds.) Processing of Visible Language: Vol. 2. (New York: Plenum Press, 1980).

Labuz, Ronald. Typography and Typesetting. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988).

Lawson, Alexander. Printing Types. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971).

Lieberman, J. Ben. Types of Typefaces and How to Recognize Them. (new York: Sterling Publishing, 1967).

Martin, Solomon. The Art of Typography. (New York: Art Direction, 1994).

Miles, Tinker. Legibility of Print. (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1963)

Moriarty, Sandra. "Legibility in Advertising Typography," Voice of a Nation at Work, Proceedings of the 1980 AAA Conference, James E. Haefner, ed., pp. 75-80.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Line Lengths and Starch Scores," Visible Language, 20:4, Autumn 1987, pp. 448-455.

Moriarty, Sandra. "The Search for the Optimum Line Length," Journalism Quarterly, 63: 2, Summer, 1986, pp. 337-340.

Moriarty, Sandra and Ed Scheiner. "A Study of Close Set Type," Journal of Applied Psychology, 69:4, 1984, pp. 700-702.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Novelty vs Practicality in Advertising Typography," Journalism Quarterly, 61:1, Spring, 1984, pp. 188-190.

Rehe, Rolf. Typography: How to Make it Most Legible. (Carmel IN: Design Research International, 1974).

Richardson, Margaret. "Timeless Typefaces." U&lc. 21:2 (Fall, 1994): 24-31.

Ruegg, Ruedi and Godi Frohlich. Basic Typography. (Switzerland: ABC Verlag Zurich, 1972).

Salen, Katie. "Speaking in Text: The Resonance of Syntactic Difference in Text Interpretation." Visible Language. 27:3 (1993): 281-302.

Sutherland, S. W. "The Forgotten Research of Miles Albert Tinker." Journal of Visual Literacy 9:1 (1989): 10-25.

Turbayne, C.M. "Visual Language from the Verbal Model." The Journal of Typographic Research. III:4 (1969): 345-370.

VII G. Color

Albers, Joseph. Interaction of Color. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975).

Berry, L. and F. M. Dwyer. "Interactive Effects of Color Realism and Learners' I.Q. in Effectiveness of Verbal Instruction." Perceptual and Motor Skills. 54 (1983): 1087-1091.

Birren, Faber. Color Perception in Art. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold co., 1976).

Birren, Faber. Principles of Color. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1969).

Bohle, Robert H. and Mario R. Garcia. "Reader Response to Color Halftones and Spot Color in Newspaper Design." Journalism Quarterly. 64 (1987): 731-739.

Christ, R. E. "Review and Analysis of Color Coding Research for Visual Displays." Human Factors. 17 (1975): 542-570.

Chute, A. G. "Analysis of the Instructional Functions of Color and Monochrome Cueing and Media Presentations." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27 (1979): 251-263.

Click, J.W. and Guido H. Stempel III. "Reader Response to Newspaper Front Pages with Four-Color Halftones." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, University of Maryland, 1976.

Dwyer, F.M and D. M. Moore. "Effect of Color on Visually and Verbally Oriented Tests with Students of Different Field Dependence Levels. Journal of Educational Systems Technology. 20:4 (1992): 311-320.

Garcia, Mario R. and Don Fry. (Eds.). Color in American Newspapers. (St. Petersburg FL: The Poynter Institute, 1986).

Garcia, Mario and Pegie Stark. "Color: Let Your Content Be Your Guide." The Poynter Report (Spring, 1992): 6-7.

Gilbert, Kathy. "Effects of Color and Complexity in Still Photographs on Mental Effort and Memory." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Portland, 1988.

Itten, Johannes. The Art of Color. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973).

Johnson, Edward A. "Preliminary Exploration of the Chromatic Differential: The Measurement of the Meaning of Color." Visual Communication 8, Feather River CA, 1994.

Loftus, E. F. "Shifting Human Color Memory." Memory and Cognition 5 (1977): 696-699.

Mante, Harold. Color Design in Photography. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1972).

McGann, Anthony F. and David Snook-Luther. "Color Quality in Print Advertising." Journalism Quarterly. 70 (Winter, 1993): 934-938.

Moore, D. M. and F. M. Dwyer. "Effect of Color Coded Information on Students' Levels of Field Dependence." Journal of Instructional Psychology. 13 (1986): 19-24.

Pratt, F. "The Contribution of Color to Three-Dimensional Ambiguities in Paintings and Drawings. Perception 8 (1979): 157-173.

Pruisner, Peggy A. "The Role of Color in Remembering Graphically Presented Information." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Pruisner, Peggy A. "From Color Code to Color Cue: Remembering Graphic Information." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1994).

Pruisner, Peggy A. "The Effects of a Color Code Used in Graphics on the Recall of Verbal Material." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Pruisner, Peggy A. "The Effects of a Color Code in Graphic Presentation and Assessment on Remembering Visual Material." In J.C. Baca, D.G. Beauchamp, and R.A. Braden, (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, 1992).

Rosch, E. "The Nature of Mental Codes for Color Categories." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 1975 (1): 303-322.

Sparkman, Richard Jr. and Larry M. Austin. "The Effect on Sales of Color in Newspaper Advertisements." Journal of Advertising. 9:4 (1980): 39-42.

Telford, Anne. "Color Predictions." Communication Arts. (January/February 1994) 90.

VII H. Cartoons

Anderson, John. "Political Cartoons: A Semiotic Analysis." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Convention, Boston Mass., August, 1990.

Bedient, D. and D. M. Moore. "Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:2 (1985): 29-36.

Berger, Arthur Asa. "Scratches From the Secret Agent: A Personal Perspective on the Art of Comic Illustration and the Creative Process."Visual Communication Quarterly. 2:3 (Summer, 1995): 8-10.

Caswell, Lucy Shelton. "A Repository for Editorial Cartoons, the Funny Papers, and Other Journalistic Graphics: The Ohio State CGA Collection." American Journalism. (Winter 1994): 4-10.

DeSousa, Michael A. and Martin J. Medhurst. "Political Cartoons and American Culture: Significant Symbols of Campaign 1980." Studies in Visual Communication. 8:1 (Winter, 1982): 84-97.

DeSousa, Michael A. and Martin J. Medhurst. "The Editorial Cartoon as Visual Rhetoric: Rethinking Boss Tweed." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 2:2 (1982): 52-61.

Goldman, Mitchel and Margaret Hagen. "The Forms of Caricature: Physiognomy and Political Bias." Studies in Visual Communication. 5:1 (Fall, 1978): 30-36.

Harrison, R. P. The Cartoon: Communication to the Quick. (Beverely Hills: Sage, 1981).

Harrison, r. P. "Cartoon Communication: Research, Appreciation, and Training." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 2:1 (1982): 29-34.

Kerns, Dan. "Decoding Photocopy Humor." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Medhurst, J. J. and M. A. DeSousa. "Political Cartoons as Rhetorical Form: A Taxonomy of Graphic Discourse." Communication Monographs. 48 (1981): 197-236.

Penner, Maurice and Susan Penner. "Publicizing, Politicizing, and Neutralizing Homelessness: Comic Strips." Communication Research. 21:6 (December 1994): 766-781.

Perkins, David. "A Definition of Caricature and Caricature and Recognition." Studies in Visual Communication. 2:1 (Spring, 1975): 1-24.

Perkins, David and M. A. Hagen. "Convention, Context and Caricature." In M. A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Sewell, Edward H. Jr. "A Visual Rhetoric of the Protestant Reformation: The Use of Cartoons to Spread Literacy." Association for Educational Communications and Technology annual conference, Dallas, 1984.

Sewell, E. H. Jr., and R. L. Moore. "Cartoon Embellishments in Informative Presentations." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28 (1980): 39-46.

Steakley, James D. "Iconography of a Scandal: Political Cartoons and the Eulenburg Affair." Studies in Visual Communication 9:2 (Spring, 1983): 20-51.

Tversky, B. and D. Baratz. "Memory for Faces: Are Caricatures Better than Photographs?" Memory and Cognition. 13 (1985): 45-49.

Weschler, Judith. "Caricature, Newspapers, and Politics--Paris in the 1830s." Studies in Visual Communication 7:4 (Fall, 1981): 2-29.

VIII. Communication Studies

Motley, Michael T. "Facial Affect and Verbal Context in Conversation: Facial Expression as Interjection (ya gotta read beyond the title!)." Human Communication Research. (September, 1993): 3-40.

VIII A. Rhetoric/Myth/Persuasion

Autrey, K. "Toward a Visual/Verbal Rhetoric." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 4:1 (1984): 5-8.

Barthes, Roland. "The Rhetoric of the Image." In S. Heath (Ed.) Image-Music-Text, (London: Fontana, 1977).

Bouse, Derek. "The visual Rhetoric of Wilderness: Contemporary Environmentalism and the Depiction of Nature." Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Doughty, Dick. "Constructing Palestinians: Visual Rhetoric and Work Organization in a News Magazine Documentary," Visual Sociology, 8 (2): 4-20.

Flory, Joyce. "Visual Literacy: A Vital Skill in the Process of Rhetorical Criticism" Southern Speech Communication Association, Atlanta GA, April 1978.

Glassman, Carl and Keith Kenney. "Myths & Presidential Campaign Photographs." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Fall, 1994): 4-7.

Lule, Jack. "The Myth of My Widow: A Dramatistic Analysis of News Portrayals of a Terrorist Victim," Political Communication and Persuasion, 5, (1988):101-120.

Margolin, V. "The Visual Rhetoric of Propaganda." Information Design Journal. 1 (1979): 107-122.

McGee, Michael Calvin. "The 'Ideograph': A Link Between Rhetoric and Ideology." In Carl R. Burchardt (Ed.) Readings in Rhetorical Criticism. (State College, PA: Strata, 1995): 442-456.

Miller, Christine. "'A Kiss is Just a Kiss:' The Visual Rhetoric of Kissing." Visual Communication 8, Feather River CA, 1994.

Olson, Lester. "Portraits in Praise of a People: A Rhetorical Analysis of Norman Rockwell's Icons in Franklin D. Roosevelt's 'Four Freedoms' Campaign." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 1983: 15-24

Scott, Linda. "Toward Visual Rhetoric," American Academy of Advertising Conference," Orlando FL, 1990.

Timberg, Bernard. "The Rhetoric of the Camera in Television Soap Opera." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Williams, Mary Rose and Enrique D. Rigsby. "The Non-Discursive Rhetoric of Television: Spinning the Wheel with Pat and Vanna." In Leah R. Vande Berg and Lawrence A. Wenner. (Eds.) Television Criticism. (New York: Longman, 1991).

VIII A1. Visual Metaphors

Durden, Joan Smyly. "Incongruous Imagery in Art and Advertising." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. IVLA conference proceedings, 1990.

Hanson, LuEtt. "Affective Response to Learning via 'Visual Metaphor." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Hatcher, Evelyn. Visual Metaphors: A Methodological Study in Visual Communication. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1988.

Kaplan, Stuart Jay. "An Empirical Investigation of Tension in Visual Metaphors," Sixth Annual Visual Communication Conference, Flagstaff, AZ, 1992.

Kaplan, Stuart Jay. "A Conceptual Analysis of Form and Content in Visual Metaphors," Fifth Annual Visual Communication Conference, Breckenridge CO, 1991.

Kaplan, Stuart Jay. "Visual Metaphors in the Representation of Communication Technology." Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7 (1), 1990: 37-47.

Kennedy, J. A. "Metaphor in Pictures." Perception 11 (1982): 589-605.

Turbayne, Colin. The Myth of Metaphor. New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1970;

Whittock, Trevor. Metaphor and Film. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

VIII B. Kinesics/Body Language/Signing

Bellugi, U. and E. S. Klima. "From Gesture to Sign: Deixis in a Visual-Gestural Language." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 3:2 (1983): 45-54.

Kendon. A. "Gesture." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 3:1 (1983): 21-36.

Ratner, N. E. and R. B. Wilbur. "Another Look at Memory Strategies in Deaf Signers." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging 4:2 (1984): 55-64.

VIII C. Literary/Literature

VIII C1. Postmodern Studies

Campbell, R. and R. Freed. "'We Know It When We See It:' Postmodernism and Television." Television Quarterly. 26 (1993): 75-87.

Hlynka, Denis. ""Reflections on 'Comments on Hlynka's Much Ado About Educational Technology: A Response to Moore and Garrison: An Existential, Postmodern and Postliterate Visual Parable." Journal of Visual Literacy. 12: 1 (Spring, 1992): 73-80.

Hlynka, Denis. "Much Ado About Educational Technology: A Response to Moore and Garrison." Journal of Visual Literacy. 9:1 (1989): 47-57.

McKinzie, Bruce W. "Modernism, Postmodernism, and the Music Video Audience." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Comunication Conference, Washington D.C., 1989.

Ma, Yan. "A Reader-Response Analysis of A Book From the Sky: A Postmodern Educational Enterprise." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Sayre, Shay and Sandra Moriarty. "Technology and Art: A Postmodern Reading of Orwell as Advertising." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Scott, Linda. "Playing with Pictures: Postmodernism, Poststructuralism, and Advertising Visuals. " In John F. Sherry, Jr. and Brian Sternthal (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 19 (1992): 596-612.

Yeaman, Andrew R. J. Deconstruction and Visuals: Is This a Telephone? In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 311-336

VIII D. Symbols/Symbolization

Browne, Ray B., Marshall W. Fishwick, and Kevin O. Browne. (Eds.) Dominant Symbols in Popular Culture. (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling State University Popular Press, 1990)

Dreyfuss, H. Symbol Sourcebook. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972).

Gardner, Howard. "From Mode to Symbol." British Journal of Aesthetics. 10 (1979): 359-375.

Gardner, Howard, Vernon Howard and David Perkins. "Symbol Systems: A Philosophical, Psychological, and Educational Investigation." In David Olson (Ed.) Media and Symbols: The Forms of Expression, Communication and Education. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974): 27-55.

Griffin, Robert E., Rune Pettersson, Ladislaus Semali, Yasuo Takakuwa. "Using Symbols in International Business Presentations: How Well Are They Understood?" In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995)

Griffin, Robert E. "Using Symbols in Business Presentations: How Well are They Understood?" In D. G. Beauchamp, R.A. Braden, and J.D. Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age.   (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

Griffin, Robert E. and W. J. Gibbs. "International Icon Symbols: How Well are These Symbols Understood?" In R. A. Braden, J.C. Baca, and D. G. Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Gross, Larry. "Modes of Communication and the Acquisition of Symbolic Competence." In George Gerbner, Larry Gross, and William Melody (Eds.) Communications Technology and Social Policy. (New York: Wiley, 1973): 189-203.

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Graphic Symbols: Things or Holes?" American Journal of Psychology. 76 (1963): 326-329.

Hortin, John A. "Symbol Systems and Mental Skills Research: Their Emphasis and Future." Media Adult Learning. 2:2 (1980): 3-6.

Jung, Carl B. Man and His Symbols. (New York: Dell, 1964).

Mackett-Stout, J. and R. Dewar. "Evaluation of Symbolic Public Information Signs." Human Factors. 23 (1981): 139-151.

Olson, D. (Ed.) Media and Symbols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974).

Pettersson, Rune. "Symbols--Studies of Color, Shape and Design." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Seels, Barbara and Barbara Fredette. "A Dialogue About Mythological Symbols from the Campfire to the Digital Age." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Sewell, Edward H. Jr. "Visual Symbols." In David Moore and Francis Dwyer, (Eds.) Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 135-144.

Whitehead, Alfred North. Symbolism: Its Meaning and Effect. (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1959)

VIII E. Signs/Semiotics

Alter, Jean. "Cleaning Up Signs in Theatre and Elsewhere." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Ashwin, Clive. "Drawing, Design and Semiotics." In Victor Margolin (Ed.) Design Discourse: History, Theory Criticism, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989): 199-209.

Bal, Mieke and Norman Bryson. "Semiotics and Art History." Art Bulletin. 73 (June 1991): 174-208.

Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. (New York: Wang and Hill, 1987).

Berger, Arthur Asa. "'He's Everything You're Not...': A Semiological Analysis of 'Cheers'." In Gary Burns and Robert J. Thompson (Ed.) Television Studies: Textural Analysis. (NY: Praeger, 1989)

Bertin, J. Semiology of Graphics. (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983).

Blonsky, Marshall. (Ed.) On Signs. (Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985).

Bopry, Jeanette. "Visual Literacy on Education - A Semiotic Perspective." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 35-50.

Burgelin, O. "Structuralist Analysis and Mass Communication." In Denis McQuail (Ed.) The Sociology of Mass Communications. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972).

Carroll, J. Toward a Structural Psychology of Cinema: Approaches to Semiotics. (The Hague: Mouton, 1980).

Eco, Umberto. "Towards a Semiotic Inquiry into the Television Message." Working Papers in Cultural Studies. 3 (Autumn 1972): 103-121.

Eco, Umberto. "A Photograph." In Umberto Eco. Travels in Hyper Reality. trans William Weaver. (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986): 213-218.

Feld, Steve and Carroll Williams. "Toward a Researchable Film Language." Studies in Visual Communication. 2 (Spring 1975): 25-32.

Gross, Larry. "Life vs. Art: The Interpretation of Visual Narratives." Studies in Visual Communication, 11:4 (Fall, 1985): 2-11.

Hall, Stuart. "Encoding/decoding." In Culture, Media, Language. (London: Hutchinson, 1980): 128-138.

Hasenmueller, C. "Panofsky, Iconography, and Semiotics." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 36 (1978): 289-301.

Hiraga, Masako. "Iconic Meanings of Visual Repetition in Poetry." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Hurtig, R. R. "Analytic and Holistic Strategies in the Perception of Sign." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 1:1 (1981): 31-36.

Jones, Bryn. "The End of the Affair: The Windsors and the Front Page." Working Papers in Cultural Studies. 3 (Autumn 1972): 89-101.

Kepes, Gyorgy (Ed.) Sign Image Symbol. (New York: George Braziller, 1980).

de Lauretis, Teresa. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982).

Lotman, Jurij. Semiotics of Cinema. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976).

Lupton, Ellen. "Reading Isotype." In Victor Margolin (Ed.) Design Discourse: History, Theory Criticism, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989): 145-156.

Metz, Christian. "The Perceived and the Named." Steven Feld and Shari Robertson, trans. Studies in Visual Communication 6:3 (Fall, 1980): 56-68.

Metz, Christian. "Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film." In Philip Rosen (Ed.), Narrative, Apparatus, Ideology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982): 35-65

Metz, Christian. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and Cinema. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982).

Metz, Christian. Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema. trans. Michael Taylor. ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1974).

Metz, Christian. Language and Cinema. trans. Donna Umiker-Sebeok. (The Hague: Mouton, 1974).

Mick, David Glen. "Consumer Research and Semiotics: Exploring the Morphology of Signs, Symbols, and Significance." Journal of Consumer Research 13 (September 1986): 196-213.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Visemics: A Proposal for a Marriage Between Semiotics and Visual Communication." Visual Communication 9. Feather River CA, 1994.

Moriarty, Sandra and Shay Sayre. "Visual Semiotics and the Production of Meaning in Advertising. " Visual Communication 6, Flagstaff, July 1992.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Literal Versus Symbolic Images in Visual Communication," Proceedings of the 1985 IVLA Conference, Custer Whiteside, ed.

Nadin, Mihai and Richard D. Zakia. Creating Effective Advertising Using Semiotics. (New York: The Consultant Press, 1994).

Porter, Michael J. "Applying Semiotics to the Study of Selected Prime Time Television Programs." Journal of Broadcasting. 27:1 (Winter 1983): 69-75.

Saint-Martin, Fernande. Semiotics of Visual Language. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).

Saint-Martin, Fernande. "From Visible to Visual Language: Artificial Intelligence and Visual Semiology." Semiotica , 77: 1/3 (1989): 303-316.

Saint-Martin, Fernande. "Notes on Semiotics of the Pictorial Basic Plane." Ars Semiotica 4/5 (1982): 305-319.

Seiter, Ellen. "Semiotics and Television." In Robert C. Allen, (Ed.) Channels of Discourse: Television and Contemporary Criticism. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987): 17-41.

Shapiro, M. "On Some Problems in the Semiotics of Visual Art: Field and Vehicle in Image-Signs." Semiotica. 1 (1969): 223-242.

Shaw, David. "Getting to the Pulp of It: Sinead O'Connor and the Iconolastic Pulpit." Speech Communication Association Conference, New Orleans, 1994.

Solomon, Jack. The Signs of Our Times. (Los Angles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1988).

Swenson, Jill Dianne. "Rodney King, Reginald Denny, and TV News: Cultural Re-construction of Racism." Journal of Communication Inquiry. 12:1 (Spring 1995): 75-88.

Tomaselli, Keyan G. and G. M. Smith. "Sign Wars: The Battlegrounds of Semiotics in Cinema in Anglo-Saxonia." Degrees. 64 (199).

Verba, Stephen M. and Carl Camden. "Barthes' The Fashion System: An Exploration at the Recipient Level." In J. Deeley (Ed.) Cultural Semiotics, (Champagne-Urbana: University Press of America, 1984): 471-489.

Verba, Stephen M. and Carl Camden. "Writing with Flesh: A Semiotic Interpretation of Research Findings on Body Image Attitudes and Behaviors in the U.S." In Jean Umiker-Sebeok, (Ed). Marketing and Semiotics. (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1987): 165-186.

Wollen, Peter. Signs and Meaning in the Cinema. (London: Secker and Warburg, 1979).

Woollacott, Janet. "Messages and Meanings." In Michael Gurevitch, T. Bennett, J. Curran and J. Woollacott (Eds.) Culture, Society and the Media. (London: Metheun, 1982): 91-111

Worth, Sol. "The Development of a Semiotic of Film." In Larry Gross (Ed.) Sol Worth: Studying Visual Communication. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981): 185-199.

IX Cultural/Critical Studies

IX A. Sociology/Anthropology

Adams, M. "Commentary. Looking Beyond the Photographic Image. Visual Resources. 4 (1987): 273-281.

Albers, Patricia C. and William R. James. "Travel Photography: A Methodological Approach." Annals of Tourism Research. 15 (1988): 134-158.

Albers, Patricia C. and William R. James. "Private and Public Images: A Study of Photographic Contrasts in Postcard Pictures of Great Basin Indians, 1898-1919." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 343-366.

Asch, Timothy, John Marshall and P. Spier. "Ethnographic Film: Structure and Function." Annual Review of Anthropology. 2 (1973): 179-187.

Asch, Timothy. "Future Prospects for the Visualization of Culture: Does the Native Still Exist?" In Robert M. B. Flaes and Douglas Harper (Eds.). Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993): 3-9.

Bailey, Roger. "From Fine Arts to Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 11-13.

Balikci, Asen. "Anthropologists and Ethnographic Filmmaking." In J. R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood Academic, 1988).

Banks, Marcus. "The Seductive Veracity of Ethnographic Film." SVA Review. 6:1 (1990): 16-21.

Banks, Marcus. "Talking Heads and Moving Pictures: David Byrnes's 'True Stories' and the Anthropology of Film." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 1-9.

Banks, Marcus. "Experience and Reality in Ethnographic Film." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 30-33.

Banta, Melissa and Curtis Hinsley. From Site to Sight: Anthropology, Photography and the Power of Imagery. (Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press, 1986).

Baranowska, Malgorzata. "The Mass-produced Postcard and the Photography of Emotions." Visual Anthropology. 7:3 (1995): 171-189.

Bateson, Gregory and Margaret Mead. Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis. (New York: Academy of Sciences Special Publication 2, 1941).

Becker, Howard S. "Photography and Sociology." Studies in Visual Communication 1:1 (Fall, 1974): 3-26.

Becker, Howard S. "Art as Collective Action" American Sociological Review 39 (1974).

Becker, Howard S. Exploring Society Photographically. (Evanston: Northwestern University, 1981).

Becker, Howard S. "Visual Sociology, Documentary Photography, and Photojournalism: It's (Almost) All a Matter of Context." Visual Sociology. 10: 1-2 (1995): 5-14.

Bertoria, Carl. "Photographing Hairstyles: Notes on the Practice of Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Spring 1988): 16-18.

Biella, Peter. "Beyond Ethnographic Film: Hypermedia and Scholarship." In Jack Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Film and Video in the 1990s. (Brockport, NY: The Institute Inc., 1993): 131-176.

Blackman, Margaret B. "Blankets, Bracelets and Boas: The Potlatch in Photographs." Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. 18:2 (1977): 53-67.

Blackman, Margaret B. "Visual Ethnohistory: Photographs in the Study of Culture History." In Dennis Weidman, Gerry Williams and Mario Zamora (Eds.) Studies in the Third World Societies Publication. 35 (Williamsburg, VA: William and Mary College, 1986): 137-166.

Blinn, Lynn and Amanda W. Harris. "Combining Native Instant Photography and Photo-Elicitation." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 175-192.

Boerdam, Jaap, and Warna Oosterbaan Martinius. "Family Photographs: A Sociological Approach." Netherlands Journal of Sociology. 16 (1980): 95-119.

Bogaart, N. C. and H. W. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottinger: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Boonzajer Flaes, Robert and Martin Rens. "Polka: Using the Camera as a Research Instrument." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Spring 1988): 15-16.

Brizee, Sandra L. "Pictographs and Photographs." The Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communication Newsletter. 10:2 (1982): 68-86.

Brouwer, Herman. "Communicating with Pictures: The Role of Pictures in Health Education in Outpatient Clinics of rural African Hospitals." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 15-27.

de Bromhead, Toni. "Filmic Pleasure and Non-fiction Film: The Pressure to Produce More Lively Films." In Robert M. B. Flaes and Douglas Harper (Eds.) Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993): 71-79.

Brown, J.D., C. R. Dykers, J.R. Steele and A. B. White. "Teenage Room Culture: Where Media and Identities Interact." Communication Research. 21:6 (December 1994): 813-827.

Bucher, Bernadette. "The Savage European: A Structural Approach to European Iconography of the American Indian." Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 80-86.

Bunster, Ximena B. "Talking Pictures: A Study of Proletarian Mothers in Lima, Peru." Studies in Visual Communication. 5 (1978): 37-55.

Bunster, Xavier. "Talking Pictures: Field Method and Visual Mode." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 3:1 (1977): 278-293.

Caldarola, Victor J. "Visual Contexts: A Photographic Research Method in Anthropology." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (1985): 33-53.

Caldarola, Victor J. "The Generation of Primary Photographic Data in Ethnographic Fieldwork and the Problem of Objectivity." In M. Taureg and J. Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Heredot, 1987): 217-239.

Caldarola, Victor J. "Imaging Process as Ethnographic Inquiry." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 433-451.

Caulfield, Jon. "The Work of Knowledge in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991):

Caulfield, Jon. "A Framework for a Sociology of Visual Images." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 60-71.

Chalfen, Richard. "Cinema Naivete: A Study of Home Moviemaking as Visual Communication." Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 87-103.

Chalfen, Richard. "A Sociovidistic Approach to Children's Filmmaking: The Philadelphia Project." Studies in Visual Communication. 7:1 (1981): 2-31.

Chalfen, Richard. "Redundant Imagery: some Observations on the Use of Snapshots in American Culture." Journal of American Culture. 4:1 (1981): 106-113.

Chalfen, Richard. "Exploiting the Vernacular: Studies of Snapshot Photography." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:3 (1983): 70-84.

Chalfen, Richard. Snapshot: Versions of Life. (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987).

Chalfen, Richard. "Japanese American Family Photography." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Fall 1987): 12-17.

Chalfen, Richard. "Native Participation in Visual Studies: From Pine Springs to Philadelphia." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 71-79.

Chalfen, Richard. "Picturing Culture Through Indigenous Imagery: A Telling Story. In Peter Crawford and David Turton, (Eds.) Film as Ethnography. (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1992): 222-241.

Chaplin, Elizabeth. Sociology and Visual Representation. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

Chiozzi, Paolo. "Photography and Anthropological Research: Three Case Studies." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 43-50.

Chiozzi, Paolo. "Reflections on Ethnographic Film with a General Bibliography." Visual Anthropology. 2:1 (1989): 1-84.

Clarke, Alfred C. and Timothy J. Curry. Introducing Visual Sociology. (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1978).

Collier, John, Jr. and Malcolm Collier. Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method. (rev. and expanded edition). (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1986).

Collier, John Jr.. "Visual Anthropology and the Future of Ethnographic Film," In Jack R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988), 73-96.

Cowling, M. The Artist as Anthropologist: The Representation of Type and Character in Victorian Art. (Cambridge: University Press, 1989).

Crawford, Peter and David Turton, (Eds.) Film as Ethnography. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992).

Critios, Costas and Tim Quinlan. "Community Video: Power and Process." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 39-52.

Critios, Costas and Tim Quinlan. "Communication That Doesn't Work? Postmodernism and Community Video: A Reply to Deacon." Visual Sociology. 8:2 (Fall 1993): 67-69.

Curry, Timothy. "Form Follows Function in Photography." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 20-22.

Damico, Sandra B. "The Two Worlds of School: Differences in the Photographs of Black and White Adolescents." Urban Review. 17 (1985): 210-222.

Danzker, Jo-Anne Birnie. "Robert Flaherty/Photographer." Studies in Visual Communication. 6:2 (1980): 3-32.

Deacon, Roger. "Power, Knowledge and Community Video Revisited." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 39-48.

Desmond, Jane. "Ethnography, Orientalism and the Avant-Garde Film." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 147-160.

Edwards, Elizabeth. "'Photographic Types': The Pursuit of Method." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 235-258.

Edwards, Elizabeth. Anthropology & Photography 1860-1920. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Elsass, Peter. "Self-Reflection or Self-Preservation: A Study of the Advocacy Effect." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 161-173.

Faccioli, Patrizia and Andrea Pitasi. "A Portrait of Italian Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 50-60.

Falconer, John. "Ethnographical Photography in India: 1850-1900." The Photographic Collector. 5:1 (1984): 16-46.

Fischer, John. "Art Styles as Cultural Cognitive Maps." American Anthropologist, 63 (1): 79-93.

Flaes, Robert M. (Ed.) Eyes Across the Water: The Amsterdam Conference on Visual Anthropology and Sociology. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1989).

Flaes, Robert M. Boonzajer and Douglas Harper (Eds.) Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993).

Fleming, Paula Richardson and Judith Luskey. The North American Indians in Early Photographs. (New York: Harper and Row, 1986).

de France, Claudine. "Filmic Anthropology: A Difficult but Promising Birth." Visual Anthropology. 6:1 (1993): 1-23.

Francis, Roy G. "Teaching Students to See." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 44-46.

Frankenberger, Leo. "Going Out of Business in Highland Park." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 24-32.

Frese, Pamela R. "Artifacts of Gendered Space: American Yard Decoration." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 17-42.

Friedman, Judith. "Suburban Landscape: Views of new Jersey Artists." Visual Sociology. 8:2 (Fall 1993): 28-39.

Fuchs, Peter. "Ethnographic Film in Germany: An Introduction." Visual Anthropology. 1:3 (1988): 217-233.

Gardner, Saundra. "Exploring the Family Album: Social Class Differences in Images of Family Life." Sociological Inquiry (May, 1991): 242-251.

Geary, Christraud M. "Photographs as Materials for African History: Some Methodological Considerations." History in Africa. 13 (1986): 89-116.

Geary, Christraud M. "Impressions of the African Past: Interpreting Ethnographic Photographs from Cameroon." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 289-315.

Geffroy, Yannick. "Family Photographs: A Visual Heritage." Visual Anthropology. 3:4 (1990): 367-409.

Ginsburg, Faye. "In Whose Image? Indigenous Media from Aboriginal Central Australia." CVA Review. (Fall 1989): 16-20.

Glenn, James R. "The Growth of an Anthropological Photograph Collection: From Passive Acceptance to the Imperative for Controlled Growth." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 157-168.

Gold, Peter. "Returning Photographs to the Indians." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:3 (Summer, 1983): 2-14.

Gold, Steven. "Student Critiques and Teaching Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 8-10.

Gold, Steven. "Photography and Field Contacts." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 13-14.

Gold, Steven. "Reading Materials in Visual Sociology: Where's the Middle Range?" Visual Sociology 1:2 (Fall 1986): 22-24.

Gold, Steven. "New York/:A: A Visual Comparison of Public Life in Two Cities." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 109-111.

Grady, John. "The Visual Essay and Sociology." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 23-38.

Green, David. "Classified Subjects--Photography and Anthropology: The Technology of Power." Ten-8. 14:3 (1984): 3-37.

Guran, Milton. "Every Day is the Day of the Indian." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 15-21.

Harper, Douglas. Good Company. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982).

Harper, Douglas. Working Knowledge. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Harper, Douglas. "The Visual Ethnographic Narrative." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 1-19.

Harper, Douglas. "Visual Sociology: Expanding Sociological Vision." The American Sociologist. 19 (Spring 1988): 54-70.

Harper, Douglas. "Interpretive Ethnography: From 'Authentic Voice' to 'Interpretive Eye'." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 33-43.

Harper, Douglas. "Visual Sociology at the University of Amsterdam: Personal Notes and Recollections." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 34-40.

Heider, Karl. Ethnographic Film. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976).

de Heusch, Luc. "The Cinema and Social Science: A Survey of Ethnographic and Sociological Films." Visual Anthropology. 1 (1988): 99-156.

Hirsch, Julia. Family Photographs: Content, Meaning and Effect. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981).

Hockings, Paul. "Ethnographic Filming and the Development of Anthropological Theory. In Paul Hockings and Yasuhiro Omori, (Eds.). Cinematographic Theory and New Dimensions in Ethnographic Film. (Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology 24, 1988): 185-204.

Hockings, Paul (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (The Hague: Mouton, 1975).

Homiak, John P. "Melville J. Herskovits: Motor Behavior and the Imaging of Afro-American Culture." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 11-29.

Husmann, Rolf. "The Anthropological and Sociological Film: Production Strategies in the Next Decade." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 14.

Im Thurn, E. "Anthropological Uses of the Camera." Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 22 (1893): 184-203.

Inglesby, Pamela. "Button-Pressers Versus PictureMakers: The Social Reconstruction of Amateur Photography in the Late 19th Century U.S." Visual Sociology. 5:1 (Spring 1990): 18-25.

Jacknis, Ira. "Franz Boas and Photography." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:1 (Winter, 1984): 2-60.

Jacknis, Ira. "Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson in Bali: Their Use of Photography and Film." Cultural Anthropology. 3:2 (1989): 160-177.

Jacknis, Ira. "James Mooney as an Ethnographic Photographer." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 179-212.

Jackson, Bruce and Diane Christian. "Editing Reality." Visual Sociology. 9:1 (Spring 1994): 62-74.

Jansen, Margriet. "Better Little Than Too Much." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Spring 1991): 13-23.

Jenkins, Paul. "The Earliest Generation of Missionary Photographers in West Africa: The Portrayal of Indigenous People and Culture." Visual Anthropology. 7:2 (1994): 115-145.

Jhala, Jayasinhji. "Power and the Portrait: The Influence of the Ruling Elite on the Visual Text in Western India." Visual Anthropology. 6:2 (1993): 171-198.

Kaplan, Flora S. "Some Uses of Photographs in Recovering Cultural History at the Royal Court of Benin, Nigeria." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 317-341.

King, Graham. Say 'Cheese!'" Looking at Snapshots in a New Way. (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1978).

Kirkpatrick, Joanna. "The Painted Rickshaw as Culture Theater." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:3 (Summer, 1984): 73-85.

Koloss, H. J. "The Ethnographical Film as a Medium of Documentation and as a Medium of Research." In N. C. Bogaart and H. W. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottinger: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Kotkin, Amy. "The Family Photo Album as a Form of Folklore." Exposure (March, 1978): 4-8.

Kriznar, Nasko. "Visual Symbols of National Identity." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Spring 1993): 58-63.

Krouse, Susan Applegate. "Photographing the Vanishing Race." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 213-233.

Kulick, Don and Margaret E. Willson. "Echoing Images: The Construction of Savagery Among Papua New Guinean Villagers." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 143-152.

Kunt, Erno. "Photography and the Peasant." New Hungarian Quarterly. 24:96 (1983): 13-20.

Lansing, Stephen. "The Decolonization of Ethnographic Film." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 10-18.

Larson, Heidi. "Photography That Listens." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 415-432.

Lester, Paul M. "Looks Are Deceiving: The Portraits of Christopher Columbus." Visual Anthropology. 5:2 (1992): 211-227.

Levine, Robert M. (Ed.) "Windows on Latin America: Understanding Society Through Photographs." Special issue South Eastern Latin Americanist. (Coral Gables, FL: Nor-South Center, University of Miami, 1987).

Levine, Robert M. Images of History: Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Latin American Photographs as Documents. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989).

Levy, Michael. Time Frames. The Meaning of Family Pictures. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980).

Loizos, Peter. Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-1985. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993).

Lutkehaus, N. "' Excuse Me, Everything is Not All Right'. On Ethnography, Film, and Representation. An Interview with Filmmaker Dennis O'Rourke." Cultural Anthropology. 4:4 (1989): 422-437.

Lutz, Nancy and J. Collins. "The Photograph as an Intersection of Gazes: The Examples of the National Geographic." Visual Anthropology Review. 7 (1991): 134-150.

Lyman, C. M. The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis. (New York: Pantheon, 1982).

MacDougall, David. "Beyond Observational Cinema." In Paul Hockings, (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1975): 109-126.

MacDougall, David. "Ethnographic Film: Failure and Promise." Annual Review of Anthropology. 7 (1978): 405-425.

MacDougall, David. "Photo Hierarchicus: Signs and Mirrors in Indian Photography." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 103-129.

MacDougall, David. "The Subjective Voice in Ethnographic Film." In Leslie Devereaux and Roger Hillman, (Eds.) Fields of Vision: Essays in Film Studies, Visual Anthropology and Photography. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

Maio, Mark. "Buffalo's Old First Ward: A Photographic Study." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 53-77.

Malmsheimer, Lonna M. "'Imitation White Man': Images of Transformation at the Carlisle Indian School." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:4 (1985): 54-75.

Malmsheimer, Lonna M. "Photographic Analysis as Ethnohistory: Interpretive Strategies." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 21-36.

Margolis, Eric. "Images in Struggle: Photographs of Colorado Coal Camps. Visual Sociology. 9:1 (Spring 1994): 4-26.

Marr, Carolyn. "Taken Pictures: On Interpreting Native American Photographs of the Southern Northwest Coast." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 80:2 (1989): 52-61.

Matthews, Thomas and Hind. "Problems and Solutions in Using the Video Camera for Field Work." Visual Sociology. 2:2 (Fall 1987): 11-15.

Mead, Margaret. "Visual Anthropology in a Discipline of Words." In Paul Hockings (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (The Hague: Mouton, 1975).

Miles, Margaret R. Image as Insight. Visual Understanding in Western Christianity and Secular Culture. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985).

Morgan, Sandra. Gender and Anthropology: Critical Reviews for Research and Teaching (Washington: American Anthropological Association, 1989).

Mulvaney, J. and G. Walker. The Aboriginal Photographs of Baldwin Spencer. (South Yarra: John Currey O'Neil Publ., 1982).

Munn, Nancy. "Visual Categories: An Approach to the Study of Representational Systems." American Anthropologist. 68 (1966): 939-950.

Musello, Christopher. "Studying the Home Mode: An Exploration of Family Photography and Visual Communication." Studies in Visual Communication 6;1 (Spring, 1980): 23-42.

Nesterenko, Alexander and C. Zoe Smith. "Contemporary Interpretations of Robert Frank's The Americans." Journalism Quarterly (Autumn, 1984): 567-577.

Newbitt, Eleanor. "Photographing Worship: Ethnographic Study of Children's Participation in Acts of Worship." Visual Anthropology 5:2-4 (1992): 285-306.

Neumann, Mark. "The Traveling Eye: Photography, Tourism and Ethnography." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 22-38.

Niessen, Sandra A. "More to It than Meets the Eye: Photo-Elicitation Amongst the Batak of Sumatra." Visual Anthropology. 4:3-4 (1991): 415-430.

Nordstrom, Allison Devine. "Wood Nymphs and Patriots: Depictions of Samoans in The National Geographic Magazine." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 49-59.

Nordstrom, Allison Devine. "Photographies of Art and Science." Visual Sociology. 9:2 (Fall 1994): 97-101.

Norman, Wilbert Rueben, Jr. "Photography as a Research Tool." Visual Anthropology, 4 (1991): 193-216.

Pandya, Vishvajit. "From Photography to Ethnography: Andamanese Documents and Documentation." Visual Anthropology. 4:3-4 (1991): 379-413.

Passariello, Phyllis. "Informed Impressions: Cumulative Ethnography and the Anthropologist as Tourist." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Pedelty, Mark. "News Photography and Indigenous Peoples: An 'Encounter' in Guatemala, "Visual Anthropology 6 (1993): 285-301

Piette, Albert. "Epistemology and Practical Applications of Anthropological Photography." Visual Anthropology 9 (1993): 157-170.

Pinney, Christopher. "Classification and Fantasy in the Photographic Construction of Caste and Tribe." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 259-288.

Poignant, R. "Getting the Picture: Axel Poignant's Photographic Record of a Threatened Fight in Arnhem Land." Journal of Museum Ethnography. 1 (1989): 15-22.

Portman, M. V. "Photography for Anthropologists." Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 25 (1896): 75-85.

Prins, Harold. "American Indians and the Ethnocinematic Complex: From Native Participation to Production Control." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 80-90.

Psathas, George. "Teaching Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 4:1 (Spring 1989): 16-17.

Psathas, George. "Teaching Visual Sociology in Japan." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Spring 1991): 33-37.

Quinney, Richard. "A Sense Sublime: Visual Sociology as a Fine Art." Visual Sociology. 10 (1995): 61-84.

Reid, John Edgar, Jr. "The Television Archive: A Source for the Sociological Study of Culture." Visual Sociology. 7:1 (Spring 1992): 80-88.

Rieger, Jon H. "Visual Sociology: A Practical Pedagogy." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 38-43.

Rollwagen, Jack R. "The Role of Anthropological Theory in 'Ethnographic' Filmmaking," In Jack R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988), 287-315.

Rollwagen, Jack R. (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988).

Rollwagen, Jack R. (Ed). Anthropological Film and Video in the 1990s. (Brockport: The Institute, Inc., 1993).

Rosenblum, Barbara. "Style as Social Process." American Sociological Review. 43 (1978).

Rosenblum, Barbara. Photographers at Work: a Sociology of Photographic Styles. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978).

Ruby, Jay. "Up the Zambezi With Notebook and Camera, or Being an Anthropologist Without Doing Anthropology. . . With Pictures." Program in Ethnographic Film Newsletter. 4:3 (1973): 12-14.

Ruby, Jay. "Is an Ethnographic Film a Filmic Ethnography?" Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 104-111.

Ruby, Jay. "Frank Boas and Early Camera Study of Behavior." The Kinesis Report. 3:1 (1980): 6-11, 16.

Ruby, Jay. "Exposing Yourself: Reflexivity, Anthropology and Film." Semiotica. 30:1/2 (1980): 153-179.

Ruby, Jay. "Beyond Realism/Formalism: Toward a New Role for Film in Anthropology." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 1:1 (1981): 49-60.

Ruby, Jay. "Seeing Through Pictures: The Anthropology of Photography." Camera-Lucida." The Journal of Photographic Criticism. (Spring 1981): 19-32.

Ruby, Jay. "Ethnography as Trompe l'Oeil: Film and Anthropology." In Jay Ruby, (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982): 121-131.

Ruby, Jay (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

Ruby, Jay. "An Early Attempt at Studying Human Behavior with a Camera: Franz Boas and the Kwakiutl--1930." In N.C.R. Bogaart and H.W.E.R. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottingen: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Ruby, Jay. "The Future of Anthropological Cinema--A Modest Polemic." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 9-13.

Ruby, Jay (Ed.). "The Cinema of Jean Rouch." Special issue of Visual Anthropology. 2:3-4 (1989).

Ruby, Jay. "Speaking for, Speaking about, Speaking with, or Speaking alongside: Anthropological and Documentary Dilemma." Visual Anthropology Review. 7 (1991): 50-68.

Russell, Catherine. "Beyond Authenticity: The Discourse of Tourism in Ethnographic and Experimental Film." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 131-141.

Sahay, K. N. "The History of Visual Anthropology in India and the Task Ahead." Visual Anthropology. 4:1 (1991): 25-41.

Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "Pictures as Documents: Resources for the Study of North American Ethnohistory." Studies in Visual Communication 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 65-66.

Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "You Can't Believe Your Eyes: Inaccuracies in Photographs of North American Indians." Studies in Visual Communication 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 67-79.

Scherer, Joanna C. "Historical Photographs as Anthropological Documents: A Retrospect." Visual Anthropology. 3 (1990): 131-156.

Schwartz, Dona. "Doing the Ethnography of Visual Communication: The Rhetoric of Fine Art Photography." Research in Language and Social Interaction. 21 (1987).

Schwartz, Dona. "Visual Ethnography: Using Photography in Qualitative Research." Qualitative Sociology. 12:2 (Summer 1989): 119-154.

Signorile, Vito. "With a Little Bit of Luck It Always Takes Longer." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 18-20.

Signorile, Vito. "Signs and Symbols: An Exploration of the Use of Visuals as Data." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Fall 1988): 9-14.

Signorile, Vito. "Dis Course is About Pictures." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Spring 1988): 22-24.

Signorile, Vito. "Reflections on a Chinese Placemat: The Rational and the Real in Visual Structure." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Fall 1993): 52-57.

Singer, Andre. Disappearing World: Television and Anthropology. (London: Boxtree, 1988).

Skinningsrud, T. "Anthropological Films and the Myth of Scientific Truths." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 47-53.

Stasz, Clarice. "The Early History of Visual Sociology." In Jon Wagner (Ed.) Images of Information. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979): 119-136.

Steiger, Ricabeth. "First Children and Family Synamics." Visual Sociology. 10 (1995): 28-49.

Steiger, Ricabeth and Martin Taureg. "Sleeping Beauties: On the Use of Ethnographic Photographs 1880-1920." In Martin Taureg and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Herodot, 1987): 316-341.

Stevens, Mariska. "Photography and the Imagined Body." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Fall 1993): 34-40.

Suchar, Charles. "Photographing the Changing Material Culture of a Gentrified Community." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Fall 1988): 17-22.

Suchar, Charles. "The Sociological Imagination and Documentary Still Photography: The Interrogatory Stance." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 51-62.

Suchar, Charles. "The Jordaan: Community Change and Gentrification in Amsterdam." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Spring 1993): 41-51.

Taureg, Martin and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Herodot, 1987).

Taylor, Lucien (Ed.). Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1900-1994. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

Thorsett, Edvard. "Applying Visual Anthropology: Ethnographic Video and Policy Ethnography." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 91-98.

Tomas, David. "The Ritual of Photography." Semiotica. 40: 1/2 (1982): 1-25.

Tomas, David. "Toward an Anthropology of Sight: Ritual Performance and the Photographic Process." Semiotica. 68: 3/4 (1988): 245-270.

Troy, Timothy. "Anthropology and Photography: Approaching a Native American Perspective." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 43-61.

Turner, Terence. "Visual Media, Cultural Politics, and Anthropological Practice: Some Implications of Recent Uses of Film and Video Among the Kayapo of Brazil." CVA Review. (Spring 1990): 8-13.

Van Der Does, Patricia et. al. "Reading Images: A Study of a Dutch Neighborhood." Visual Sociology. 7:1 (Spring 1992): 4-67.

Wagner, Jon (Ed). Images of Information: Still Photography in the Social Sciences. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979).

Walker, Andrew L. and Rosalind Kimball Moulton. "Photo Albums: Images of Time and Reflections of Self." Qualitative Sociology. 12 (1989): 155-182.

Watkins, Susan Cotts. "Graphics in Demography." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (Summer 1985): 2-21.

Weber, Ronald L. "Photographs as Ethnographic Documents." Artic Anthropology. 22:1 (1985): 67-78.

Wiber, Melanie G. "Undulating Women and Erect Men: Visual Imagery of Gender and Progress in Illustrations of Human Evolution." Visual Anthropology. 7:1 (1994): 1-20.

Woodhead, Leslie and Andre Singer. Disappearing World: Television and Anthropology. (London: Boxtree, 1988).

Woodward, Peter. "Jewish Children Under the Camera: An Ethnographic Study of Jewish Children in Britain." Visual Anthropology. 5:3-4 (1992): 307-330.

Worth, Sol. "Margaret Mead and the Shift from 'Visual Anthropology' to the 'Anthropology of Visual communication'." Studies in Visual Communication. 6:1 (Spring, 1980): 15-22.

Wright, Terence. "Photography, Realism and 'The Natives'. British Journal of Photography 6400. 130 (1983): 340-342.

Wright, Terence. "Lines of Descent Photography for Evidence or Interpretation?" Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 63-70.

Wright, Terence. "The Fieldwork Photographs of Jenness and Malinowski and the Beginnings of Modern Anthropology." Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford. 22:1 (1991).

Young, Colin. "Ignorance or Modesty." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 4-10.

Ziller, Robert C. Photographing the Self. (Newbury Park: Sage, 1990).

IX A1. Cross-Cultural Studies

Banks, Ana. "Images Trapped in Two Discourses: Photojournalism Codes and the International News Flow." Journal of Communication Inquiry. 18:1 (Winter 1994: 118-134.

Bazeli, Marilyn J. "Visual Literacy Education: Developing Thinking Citizens Across Cultures." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.)Visual Communication, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1991).

Bellman, Beryl L. and Bennetta Jules-Rosette. A Paradigm for Looking: Cross-Cultural Research With Visual Media. (Norwood NJ: Ablex, 1977).

Binnie-Dawson, J. L. M. and P. P. Choi. "A Study of Perceptual and Cultural Cues in Chinese and Western Paintings." Psychologia. 25 (1982) 18-31.

Blackman, M. "'Copying People': Northwest Coast Native Response to Early Photography." BC Studies. 52 (1982): 86-112.

Blinn, Lynn M. "The Family Photo Assessment Process (FPAP): A Method of Validating Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Family Social Identities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 19:1 (1988): 17-35.

Deregowski, J. B. Illusions, Patterns and Pictures: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. (New York: Academic Press, 1980)

Deregowski, J. B., E.S. Muldrow, and W. F. Muldrow. "Pictorial Recognition in a Remote Ethiopian Population." Perception 1 (1972), 417-425.

Ekman, P. The Face of Man: Expressions of Universal Emotion in a New Guinea Village. (New York: Garland, 1980).

Falconer, J. "Photography in Nineteenth Century India." In C. Bayley (Ed.) The Raj: India and the British 1600-1947. (London: National Portrait Gallery, 1990): 264-277.

Gustafson, Marilyne R. and Stacy I. Roettger. "Pictorial Literacy Skills of Haitian and Hmong Women." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:1, 5-84.

Gutman, J. M. Through Indian Eyes: 19th and 20th Century Photography from India. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Hagan, M. A. and R. K. Jones. "Cultural Effects on Pictorial Perception: How Many Words is One Picture Really Worth?" In R. D. Wald and H. L. Pick, Jr. (Eds.) Perception and Experience. (New York: Plenum Press, 1978): 171-214.

Hamdi, N., F. Knirk and W. B. Michael. "Differences Between American and Arabic Children in Performance on Measures of Pictorial Depth Perception." Educational and Psychological Measurement. 42 (1982): 285-296.

Hammond, Joyce D. "Visualizing Themselves: Tongan Videography in Utah." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 379-400.

Hinde, R. A. "The Comparative Study of Non-Verbal Communication." In Jonathan Benthall and Ted Polhemus, (Eds.) The Body as a Medium of Expression. (London: Allen Lane, 1975): 107-142.

Hofman, R. J., and M. L. Trepanier. "A Cross-Cultural Influence on Some Basic Graphic Representations of Young Chinese and American Children." Journal of Genetic Psychology. 141 (1982): 167-175.

Jones, Rebecca K. and Margaret A. Hagen. "A Perspective on Cross-Cultural Picture Perception." In Margaret A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures. Vol. 2. (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Kenney, Keith. "Using Self-Portraits to Understand Self-Concepts of Chinese and American University Students." Visual Anthropology. 5 (1993): 245-269.

Kenney, Keith. "Photojournalism Education at Universities in China." Journalism Educator. 42 (Autumn 1987): 19-21.

Kenney, Keith. "Photographic Content in Chinese Newspapers." Gazette. 51 (1993): 149-169.

Kenney, Keith. "Influences of Politics and Economics Upon Photographic Content in Chinese Newspapers." Asian Journal of Communication. 3 (December 1993): 56-74.

Masayesva, Victor, Jr. and Erin Younger. Hopi Photographers, Hopi Images. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1983).

McElroy, Keith. Early Peruvian Photography: A Critical Case Study. (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985).

Metallinos, Nikos, Robert Muffoletto, Rune Pettersson, J. Shaw, and Yasuo Takakuwa. "The Use of Verbo-Visual Information in Textbooks--A Cross-Cultural Experience." International Visual Literacy Association Intentional Symposium, University of London, 1990.

Michaels, Eric. "How to Look at Us Looking at the Yanomami Looking at Us." In Jay Ruby, (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982): 133-146.

Miller, R. J. "Cross-cultural Research in the Perception of Pictorial Materials." Psychological Bulletin. 80 (1973): 135-150.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Global Advertising and Visual Communication," Journal of Visual Literacy , 9 (1989): 58-69.

Moriarty, Sandra and Lisa Rohe. "Cultural Palettes: An Exercise in Sensitivity for Designers." Journalism Educator, 46:4 (Winter 1992: 32-37.

Mshelia, A. Y. and L. H. Lapidus. "Depth Picture Perception in Relation to Cognitive Style and Training in Non-Western Children." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 21 (1990): 414-433.

Myers, Fred R. "Truth, Beauty, and Pintupi Painting." Visual Anthropology. 2:2 (1989): 163-195.

Omari, I. and W. H. McGintie. "Some Pictorial Artifacts in Studies of African Children's Pictorial Depth Perception." Child Development. 45 (1974): 535-539.

Paulgaard, Cry and Toril Jenssen. "Film in the Social sciences of Tromso, Northern Norway." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 15-18.

Pettersson, Rune." Cultural Differences in the Perception of Image and Color in Pictures." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30 (1982): 43-53.

Pitseolak, Peter and Dorothy Eber. People from Our Side: An Eskimo Life Story in Words and Photographs. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975).

Sauzier, Bertrand. "An Interpretation of 'Man With the Movie Camera'." Studies in Visual Communication 11:4 (Fall, 1985): 30-53.

Seagall, M. H., D. T. Campbell and M. J. Herskovits. The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception. (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966).

Serpell, R. and J. B. Deregowski. "The Skill of Pictorial Perception: An Interpretation of Cross-Cultural Evidence." International Journal of Psychology. 15 (1980): 145-180.

Sprague, Stephen. "How I See the Yoruba See Themselves." Studies in Visual Communication 5:1 (Fall, 1978): 9-28.

Sprague, Stephen. "Yoruba Photography: How the Yoruba See Themselves." African Arts. 12:1 (1978): 52-59, 107.

Stokrocki, Mary. "Through Navajo Children's Eyes: Cultural Influences on Representational Abilities." Visual Anthropology. 7:1 (1994): 47-67.

Viditz-Ward, Vera. "Photography in Sierra Leone, 1850-1918." Africa. 57:4 (1987): 510-517.

Worth, Sol and John Adair. Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration of Film Communication and Anthropology. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972).

IX B. Critical Studies

Barry, Ann Marie. "Tailhook 'Top Guns': Visual Templates in the Use and Abuse of Power." Journal of Visual Literacy, 14 (1): 51-59.

Belk, Russell W. and Richard W. Pollay. "Images of Ourselves: The good Life in Twentieth Century Advertising." Journal of Consumer Research. 11 (March, 1985): 887-897.

Creaney, Anne Drolett, Richard A. Couch, Edward J. Caropreso. "Representation of Culture in Children's Picture Books." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Davis, J. Francis. "The Power of Images. Media & Values. 57 (Winter, 1992): 4-6.

Drucker, Johanna. "Artists' Books and the Cultural Status of the Book." Journal of Communication. 44 (Winter, 1994): 12-42.

Durden, Joan S. "The Hollywood Icon of the Cowboy Hero." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Ewen, Stuart. All Consuming Images--The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture. (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis. New York: Harper & Row, 1974

Griffin, Michael. "The Millstone of Popular Culture: Competing with the Commercial Mass Production of Cultural Imagery." Visual Sociology, 8 (2): 21-27.

Gumpert, G. and R. Cathcart. "Media Grammars, Generations, and Media Gaps." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 2 (1985): 23-25.

Hammel, William M. (Ed.) The Popular Arts in America: A Reader. (new York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972).

Hill, Ronald Paul. "AIDs and the Arts." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 294-297.

Morreale, Joanne. A New Beginning: A Textural Frame Analysis of the Political Campaign Film. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1991).

Newcomb, Horace. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Newcomb, Horace. TV: The Most Popular Art. (Garden City NY: Doubleday/Anchor Books, 1975).

Metallinos, Nikos. "Approaches to Visual Communication Media Criticism and Their Application to Television Genres." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Audience Reception of Diane Arbus' Photographs: A Q-Study." Journal of American Culture (Spring, 1985): 13-38.

Snyder, Joel. "Picturing Vision." Critical Inquiry. 6 (1980): 499-526.

Spitzer, Leo. "American Advertising Explained as Popular Art." In Anna Hatcher, (Ed.) Essays on English and American Literature. (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 19662): 248-277.

Spring, Joel. "Managing Images: Civil Rights and the Anti-War Movement." Chapter. 12 in Images of American Life: A History of Ideological Management in Schools, Moves, Radio, and Television. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1992)

Thoman, Elizabeth. "Rise of the Image Culture: Re-Imagining the American Dream." Media & Values. 57 (Winter, 1992): 7-10.

Zettl, Herb. "The Language of Television: The Language of Television Criticism." Broadcast Education Association Annual Conference, Washington D.C., 1978.

IX B1 Ideology/Bias

Franz, Karen. "Ideology and the Media: Local Television Coverage on the 'Fall of the Berlin Wall' in the United States,"Visual Sociology 8 (1): 2-15."

Goldman, Robert, and Gloria Lester Beeker. "Decoding Newsphotos: An Analysis of Embedded Ideological Values." Humanity and Society 9 (August, 1985): 351-363.

Hall, Stuart. "Signification, Representation, Ideology: Althusser and the Post-Structuralist Debates." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 62 (1985): 91-114.

Kenney, Keith. "Ideology and Press Photographs: A Framework for Analysis." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, Portland, 1988.

Kinder, Marsha. "Music Video and the Spectator: Television, Ideology, and Dream." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Lewis, Charles. "Images and Ideology: A Theoretical Framework for Critical Research in Visual Literacy," Journal of Visual Literacy 11 (Autumn), 1991: 10-34.

Nichols, B. Ideology and the Image: Social Representation in the Cinema and Other Media. (Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1981).

Wernick, A. Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression. (Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications, 1991).

Wolf, Bryan. "All the World's a Code: Art and Ideology in Nineteenth-Century American Painting." Art Journal. 44 (Winter, 1984): 328-337.

IX B2. Gender & Racial Issues/Stereotyping

Atkin, David and Marilyn Fife. "The Role of Race and Gender as Determinants of Local TV News Coverage." Howard Journal of Communication. (Fall/Winter 1993/94): 123-137.

Armstrong, Carol M. "Edgar Degas and the Female body." In Susan R. Suleiman (Ed.) The Female Body in Western Culture. (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1986): 223-242.

Artz, Nancy and Alladi Venkatesh. "Gender Representation in Advertising." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael H. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 18 (1990): 618-623.

Berg, Charles Ramirez. "Stereotyping in Films in General and of the Hispanic in Particular." Howard Journal of Communication. 2 (1990): 286-300.

Betterton, Rosemary. "How Do Women Look: The Female Nude in the Work of Suzanne Valadon." In Hilary Robinson (Ed.) Visibly Female: Feminism and Art-- An Anthology. (New York: Universe Books, 1988): 250-271.

Biren, Joan E. "Lesbian Photography--Seeing Through Our Own Eyes." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:2 (Spring 1981): 81-96.

Butler, Rebecca P. and Ann Devaney. "Gender Perceptions in Instructional Technology." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 11-34.

Condron, Linda, Patricia O'Riley, Suzanne Damarin. "Women and the Discourses of the Visual: Where are Women in this Picture?" In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Couch, Richard A. "Gender Equity & Visual Literacy: Schools Can Help Change Perceptions." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "The Ascendancy of the Visual and Issues of Gender: Equality Versus Difference." Journal of Visual Literacy. 13:2 (Autumn, 1993): 61-71.

Devaney, Ann and Alejandra Elenes. "Square One Television and Gender." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film (New York: Routledge, 1990).

Dyer, Richard. (Ed.) Gays and Film (New York: Zoetrope, 1984).

Dyer, Richard. "Seen to Be Believed: Some Problems in the Representation of Gay People as Typical." Studies in Visual Communication 9:2( (Spring, 1983): 2-19.

Elterman, H. "Using Films to Teach Gender Roles: Three Theoretical Approaches.:" Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 29-42.

Entman, Robert M. "Blacks in the News: Television, Modern Racism and Cultural Change." Journalism Quarterly. 69:2 (Summer 1992): 341-361.

Friedman, Lester D. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991).

Gamian, L. and M. Marshment (Eds.). The Female Gaze. (London: The Women's Press, 1988).

Goffman, Erving. Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Hagan, Tracey D. "Drawn by Desire: A Study of the Female Image in Modern Art History." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Hooks, Bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. (Boston: south End Press, 1992).

Kenrick, Douglas T. and Sarra E. Gutierres. "Contrast Effects and Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: When Beauty Becomes a Social Problem." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 38 (January, 1980): 131-140.

Kervin, Denise. "Gender Ideology in Television Commercials." In Leah R. Vande Berg and Lawrence A. Wenner. (Eds.) Television Criticism. (New York: Longman, 1991).

Kervin, Denise. "Advertising Masculinity: The Representation of Males in Esquire Advertisements. Journal of Communication Inquiry. 14 (1990): 51-69.

Kervin, Denise. "Gender Coding in Magazine Advertisements." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 7:1 (1987): 52-59.

Leibowitz, Flo. "A Note on Feminist Theories of Representation: Questions Concerning the Autonomy of Art." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 48 (Fall, 1990): 361-364.

Lester, Paul, ed. Images That Injure forthcoming.

Lester, Paul. "African-American Photo Coverage in Four U.S. Newspapers, 1937-1990." Journalism Quarterly. 71 (Summer, 1994): 380-394.

McNally, Coleen and Arnold S. Wolfe. In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) "Deconstructing Images: Understanding the Role of Images in the Social Production of Meaning." In Investigating Visual Literacy, IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990: 291-300.

Muffoletto, Robert. "Representations: You, Me, and Them." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: (Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 295-310.

Mulvey, Laura. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," Screen 16 (Autumn 1975): 6-18.

Mulvey, Laura. Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Parker, Rozsika and Griselda Pollock. Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. (New York: Pantheon, 1981.)

Pollock, Griselda. Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism, and Histories of Art. (New York: Routledge 1988).

Prather, J.M and M. J. Einerson. "Jill in a Box: Figure-Ground Differences in Magazine Advertisement Photographs." Speech Communication Association, 1994, New Orleans, LA.

Rakow, Lana F. and Kimberlie Kranich. "Woman as Sign in Television News." Journal of Communication. 41:1 (Winter, 1991): 8-23.

Rakow, Lana F. "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful: Feminist Resistance to Advertising's Irresistible Meanings." Southern Communication Journal. 57:2 (Winter, 1992): 132-142.

Richins, Marsha L. "Social Comparison and the Idealized Images of Advertising." Journal of Consumer Research. 18 (June 1991): 71-83.

Ruffo, M.M. "Changing Advertising Images: The 'Male Gaze' Turns on Itself." Speech Communication Association, 1992, Chicago, Il.

Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. 2nd ed. (New York: Harper, 1987).

Scott, Linda. "Fresh Lipstick: A New Look at Images of Women in Advertising." Media Studies Journal. 7:1-2 (Winter/Spring, 1993): 141-156.

Seiter, Ellen. "Stereotypes and the Media: A Re-evaluation." Journal of Communication. 36 (1986): 14-26.

Walker, Alice. "Giving the Party: Aunt Jemima, Mammy, and the Goddess Within." MS. (May/June 1994): 22-25.

Warlaumont, Hazel G. "Visual Grammars of Gender: The Gaze and Psychoanalytic Theory in Advertisements." Journal of Communication Inquiry. (Spring, 1993): 4-19.

IX B3. Ethics/Social Responsibility

Ahlhauser, John. "A History of Photojournalism Ethics." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 2-5.

Bailey, George A. and Lawrence W. Lichty. "Rough Justice on a Saigon Street: A Gatekeeper Study of NBC's Tet Execution Film." Journalism Quarterly. 49 (Summer, 1972): 221-225.

Baker, Robert L. "Portraits of a Public Suicide; Photo Treatment by Selected Pennsylvania Dailies." Newspaper Research Journal 9 (Summer 1988): 13-23.

Beckman, Rich. "Research on Photojournalism Ethics." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 80-93.

Becker, Howard S. "Foreword: Images, Ethics, and Organizations." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990):xi-xvii.

Beloff, Halla. "Social Interaction in Photographing." Leonardo. 16:3 (Summer 1983): 165-171.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. (New York: Harper & Row, 1961).

Bossen, Howard. "Zone V: Photojournalism, Ethics, and the Electronic Age." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (1985): 22-32.

Brink, Ben. "Question of Ethics: Where Does Honesty in Photojournalism Begin?" News Photographer (June 1988): 21-33.

Brown, Cindy. "They Do It Differently in Canada: How Law Enforcement Agents Seek Photographic Evidence from Media Outlets." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Winter, 1994): 6-7.

Brown, Jennifer E. "News Photographers and the Pornography of Grief." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 75-81.

Braun, Joseph A. Jr. "Recognizing Bias: A Visual Literacy Lesson From Beijing." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Ed.) Investigating Visual Literacy. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990 : 367-373.

Bryant, Garry. "10-50 P.I.: Emotion and the Photographer." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 32-39.

Coleman, A. D. "Private Lives, Public Places: Street Photography Ethics." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (1987): 60-66.

Craig, Robert L. "Universal Pragmatics: A Critical Approach to Image Ethics." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Eaton, Marcia. "Truth in Pictures." Columbia University Forum 9 (1966): 1, 27-31.

Fiedler, Fred, Tim Counts and Paul Hightower. "Changes in Wording of Cutlines Fail to Reduce Photographs' Offensiveness." Journalism Quarterly. 59 (Winter, 1982): 633-637.

Gold, Steven J. "Ethical Issues in Visual Field Work," In Grant Blank, James L. McCartney, Edward Brent (Eds.) Practical Applications in Research and Work (New Brunswick: Transaction Publications, 1989): 99-107.

Goodwin, H. Eugene. "That's Shocking," In Groping for Ethics in Journalism. (Ames Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1987.)

Gross, Larry. "The Ethics of (Mis)representation." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 188-202.

Hansen, C., C. Needham, and Bill Nichols. "Pornography, Ethnography, and the Discourse of Power." In Bill Nichols (Ed.) Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991): 201-228.

Hartley, Craig. H. "Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers." Journalism Quarterly. 60:2 (1983): 301-305.

Henderson, Lisa. "Access and Consent in Public Photography." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 91-107.

Jay, Bill. "The Photographer as Aggressor." In David Featherstone (Ed.) Observations Essays on Documentary Photography, (Carmel: The Friends of Photography, 1984): 7-23.

Kochersberger, Robert C. "Survey of Suicide Photos Use in Newspapers in Three States." Newspaper Research Journal. 9 (Summer 1988): 1-12.

Lester, Paul. Photojournalism: An Ethical Approach. (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991).

Lester, Paul (Ed.). The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990).

Lester, Paul and Ron Smith. "African-American Photo Coverage in Life, Newsweek and Time, 1937-1988."Journalism Quarterly, 67 (Spring, 1990): 128-136.

Lester, Paul. "Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics." Journalism Educator. 44:2 (Summer, 1989): 13-17, 49.

Lester, Paul. "Photojournalism Ethics: Timeless Issues." In Michael Emery and Ted Smythe (Eds.) Customized Readings in Mass Communication. (Dubuque, IA: WCB: Brown and Benchmark, 1995).

Lester, Paul. "Military Censorship of Photographs." In Philip Patterson and Lee Wilkins (Eds.), Media Ethics: Issues and Cases. (Dubuque IA: WCB: Brown and Benchmark, 1995).

Lester, Paul (Ed.). Images That Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media. (Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996).

Linton, James. "'Smile You're on Candid Camera': Some Ethical Issues in Visual Research." First International Conference on Visual Sociology, Windsor, Ontario, 1983.

MacDougall, Curtis D. News Pictures Fit to Print. . . Or Are They? (Stillwater, OK: Journalistic Services, 1971).

Marshall, Ernest C. "Artistic Convention and the Issue of Truth in Art." The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 23 (Fall 1989): 301-305.

Martin, Edwin. "The Rights of Those Pictured." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 28-34.

Michaels, Eric. "A Primer of Restrictions on Picture-Taking in Traditional Areas of Aboriginal Australia." Visual Anthropology. 4:4 (1991): 259-275.

Myers, Philip N. Jr. and Frank Biocca, "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions on Young Women." Journal of Communication. 43:3 (Summer 1992): 108-133.

Newton, Julianne. "Why Ethics?" In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 6-9.

O'Brien. "Eye on Soweto: A Study of Factors in News Photo Use." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 3: 2 (1991): 69-87.

Padgett, George. "Codes Should Address Exploitation of Grief by Photographers." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 1:1 (Fall/Winter 1985/86): 50-56.

Pinney, C. "Other People's Bodies, Lives, Histories? Ethical Issues in the Use of a Photographic Archive." Journal of Museum Ethnography. 1 (1989): 57-68.

Parsons, P. and W. Smith. "R. Budd Dwyer: A Case Study in Newsroom Decision Making." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 3:1 (1988): 84-94.

Roskill, Mark and David Carrier, Truth and Falsehood in Visual Images, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1983).

Ruby, Jay. The Ethics of Image Making." In A. Rosenthal (Ed.). Documentary Challenge. (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1987).

Rynkiewitch, Michal A. and James P. Spradley, (Eds.) Ethics and Anthropology, Dilemmas in Fieldwork. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976).

Sanders, B. "Invasion of Privacy...Your Decision or Theirs?" News Photographer. (March, 19896): 12-13.

Schwartz, Dona. "To Tell the Truth: Codes of Objectivity in Photojournalism." Communication. 13:2 (1992): 95-109.

Sherer, Michael. "Manipulating 'Forrest Gump.' Single Code of Ethics Would Better Serve Press, Public." Quill. November/December, 1994: 34.

Smith, Conrad. "Oiled Otters, File Footage and Visual Symbolism: A Case Study in the Ethics of Television News." Visual Communication 5, Breckenridge CO, 1991.

Steele, Robert M. "Video Ethics: The Dilemma of Value Balancing." Journal of Mass Media Ethics 2. (Spring/Summer 1987): 7-17.

Viera, John D. "Images as Property." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 135-162.

Wischmann, Lesley. "Dying on the Front Page: Kent State and the Pulitzer Prize." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (Sprint/Summer, 1987): 67-74.

Zemp, Hugo. "Ethical Issues in Ethnomusicological Filmmaking." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 49-64.



IX B4. Image Manipulation

Brand, S., K. Kelly, and J. Kinney. "Digital Retouching: The End of Photography as Evidence of Anything." Whole Earth Review. (July, 1985): 42-49.

Harris, Christopher R. "Digitalization and Manipulation of News Photographs." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 6 (1991): 164-174.

Jaubert, A. Making People Disappear: An Amazing Chronicle of Photographic Deception. (Washington: Pergamon-Brassey's, 1989).

Kelly, James E. and Diona Nace. "Digital Imaging and Believing Photos." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Winter 1994): 4-5, 18.

Lasica, J. D. "Photographs That Lie." Washington Journalism Review. 11 (1989): 22-25.

Lester, Paul. "Faking Images in Photojournalism" Media Development. 35 (January, 1988): 41-42.

Martin, Edwin. "Against Photographic Deception." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (Spring/Summer, 1987): 49-59.

Martin, Edwin. "On Photographic Manipulation." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 6 (1991): 156-163.

Mitchell, W. J. The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1992).

Parker, Douglas. "Ethical Implications of Electronic Still Camera and Computer Digital Imaging in the Print Media." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 3:2 (Fall, 1988): 47-59.

Reaves, Sheila. "Magazines vs. Newspapers: Editors Have different Ethical Standards on the Digital Manipulation of Photographs." Visual Communication Quarterly. 2:1 (Winter, 1995): 4-7.

Reaves, Sheila. "Digital Alteration of Photographs in Consumer Magazines." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 6 (1991): 175-181.

Reaves, Sheila. "Photography, Pixels, and New Technology: Is There a 'Paradigm Shift'?" Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Washington D.C., 1989.

Reaves, Sheila. "Digital Retouching: Is There a Place For It In Newspaper Photography.?" Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (Spring/Summer, 1987): 40-48.

Ritchin, Fred. In Our Own Image: The Coming Revolution in Photography. (New York: Apertures, 1990).

Slattery, Karen and J. T. Tiedge. "The Effect of Labeling Staged Video on the Credibility of TV News Stories." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 36 (1992): 279-286.

Sutton, Ron. "Image Manipulation: Then and Now," In Nikos Metallinos, (Ed.) Verbo-Visual Literacy, International IVLA Symposium, Delphi Greece, 1993.

Terry, Danal and Dominic L. Lasorsa. "Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Washington D.C., 1989.

Tomlinson, Don E. "Computer Manipulation and Creation of Images and Sounds: Assessing the Impact." Washington DC: The Annenberg Washington Program, 1993.

Wheeler, Tom and Tim Gleason. "Photography or Photofiction: An Ethical Protocol for the Digital Age." Visual Communication Quarterly. 2:1 (Winter, 1995): 8-12.

Zelle, Ann, Terry Gips, David Adamson, and Charles Ossola. "Image Manipulation: Four Points of View on the Future of 'Reality.' Visual Communication, IVLA, Annual Conference Proceedings, 1991.

Zelle, Ann and Ronald Sutton. "Image Manipulation: The Zelig Phenomenon." Journal of Visual Literacy, 11 (1), 1991: 10-37.

X. Professional Practice/Disciplines

X A. Moving Image Media (General)

Allan, David W. "Aural-Visual-Kinesthetic Imagery in Motion Media." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Baggett, P. "Role of Temporal Overlap of Visual and Auditory Material in Forming Dual Media Associations." Journal of Educational Psychology. 76 (1984): 408-417.

Fletcher, James E. "Assessment of the Visual Image in Film, Television and the New Visual Media: Research Design," in Nikos Metallinos, (Ed.) Verbo-Visual Literacy, International IVLA Symposium Conference Proceedings, Delphi Greece, 1993.

Kaha, C.W. "Towards a Syntax of Motion." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (1993): 339-348.

Madsen, Roy Paul . The Impact of Film: How Ideas Are Communicated Through Cinema and Television. (NY: Macmillan, 1973)

Pryluck, Calvin. Sources of Meaning in Motion Pictures and Television.. (New York: Arno Press, 1976.)

Tiemens, R. K. "Some Relationships of Camera Angles to Communication Credibility." Journal of Broadcasting. 17 (1970): 353-362.

X A1. Film/Cinema

Arnheim, Rudolf. Film As Art. (Berkeley CA: University of California Press, 1966).

Balazs, Bela. Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art, New York: Dover, 1970;.

Bazin, Andre. 1867. What Is Cinema? Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

Bazin, Andre. "The Ontology of the Photographic Image." In What is Cinema?, trans. Hugh Gray (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967).

Boggs, Joseph M. The Art of Watching Films. 2nd ed. (Mountain View CA: Mayfield, 1985)

Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. Film Art: An Introduction, 2nd ed. New York: Knopf, 1986.

Braudy, Leo. The World in a Frame: What We See in Films. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, 1977).

Carroll, John. Toward a Structural Psychology of Cinema. (The Hague: Mouton, 1980).

Chatman, Seymour B. "What is Description in the Cinema?" Cinema Journal. 23 (Summer, 1984): 4-11.

Davies, R. A., J. M. Farrell and S. S. Mathews. "The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective of Cinematic Communication." Western Journal of Speech. 46 (1982): 326-343.

Eisenstein, Sergei. Film Form. (New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1949).

Eisenstein, Sergei. The Film Sense. Rev. ed. (New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1975).

Giannetti, L.D. Understanding Movies. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972).

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "The Perception of Motion Pictures." In E. C. Carterette and M. P. Friedman (Eds.) Handbook of Perception, Vol. 10. (New York: Academic Press, 1978).

Jesionowski, J. E. Thinking in Pictures: Dramatic Structure in D. W. Griffith's Biograph Films. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).

Kawin, B. How Movies Work. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

Linton, James and G. Jowett. Movies as Mass Communication. 2nd ed (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1989).

Mayne, J. Cinema and Spectatorship. (New York: Routledge, 1993).

Messaris, Paul. "The Film Audience's Awareness of the Production Process." Journal of the University Film Association. 33 (1981): 53-56.

Montagu, Ivor. Film World: A Guide to Cinema. (Baltimore MD: Penguin Books, 1967)

Sauzier, Bertrand. "An Interpretation of 'Man with the Movie Camera'." Studies in Visual communication 11:2 (Fall, 1985): 30-53.

Stephenson, Ralph and J.R. Debrix. The Cinema as Art. (Baltimore MD: Penguin Books, 1969.

X A2. Television/Video

Antin, David. "Video: The Distinctive Features of the Medium." In Ira Schneider and Beryl Korot (Eds.) Video Art: An Anthology. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976): 180.

Aufderheide, Patricia. "Vernacular Video." Columbia Journalism Review. (January/February 1995): 46-48.

Baggaley, J. P., M. Ferguson and F. Brooks. Psychology of the TV Image. (New York: Praeger, 1980)

Banks, Anna. "Frontstage/Backstage: Loss of Control in Real-Time Coverage of the War in the Gulf." Visual Communication 5, Breckenridge, 1991; Also in Communication. 13:2 (1992); 111-119.

Barbatsis, Gretchen and Yvette Guy. "Analyzing Meaning in Form: Soap Opera's Compositional Construction of 'Realness." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35 (Winter, 1991): 59-74.

Barbatsis, Gretchen, Keith Kenney and Lori Owen. "Television Program Logos: Pictorially Encoding Storytelling Themes." Speech Communication Association Conference, Boston, November 1986.

Barker, David. "'It's Been Real': Forms of Television Representation." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 5:1 (March, 1988): 42-56.

Carey, James W. (Ed.) Media, Myths, and Narratives: Television and the Press. Newbury Park CA: Sage, 1988).

Collins, W. A. and M. Wiens. "Cognitive Processes in Television Viewing: Description and Strategic Implications." In M. Pressley and J. R. Levin (Eds.) Cognitive Strategy Research: Psychological Foundations. (New York: Spinger-Verlag, 1983): 79-201.

Ellis, John. "Broadcast TV as Sound and Image." In John Corner and Jeremy Hawthorne, (Eds.), Communication Studies. (London: Edward Arnold, 3rd ed. 1989).

Feuer, Jane. "The MTM Style." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Fiske, J. and J. Hartley. Reading Television. London: Metheum, 1978)

Gitlin, Todd. (Ed). Watching Television. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.

Hazard, Patrick D. (Ed.) TV as Art. Champaign IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1966).

Himmelstein, Hal. Television Myth and the American Mind. (New York: Praeger, 1984)

Kaminsky, Stuart with Jeffrey H. Mahan. American Television Genres. (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1984).

Kinder, Marsha. "Music Video and the Spectator: Television, Ideology, and Dream." Film Quarterly, 38 (Autumn, 1984): 2-15.

Kipper, Phil. 'Television Camera Movement as a Source of Perceptual Information." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 30 (1986).

Metallinos, Nikos. "Visual Literacy: Suggested Theories for the Study of Television Pictures Perception." Journal of Visual Literacy, 12 (Spring 1992): 57-72.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Three Dimensional Video: Perceptual and Aesthetic Drawbacks." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Computerized Television: New Developments in Television Production Techniques." Journal of Verbal Visual Languaging 7 (1987): 21-32.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Empirical Studies of Television Composition." In J.R. Dominick and J.C. Fletcher (Eds.) Broadcasting Research Methods. (Warton, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1985)

Metallinos, Nikos "The Idiosyncracies of Television: An Overall View. Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5 (1985): 41-43.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Composition of the Television Picture: Some Hypotheses to Test the Forces Operating Within the Television Screen." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 27 (1979): 205-214.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Asymmetry of the Screen: The Effect of Left Versus Right Placement of Television Images." Journal of Broadcasting. 21 (1977): 21-33.

Olson, Alan M., Christopher Parr, and Debra Parr. Video Icons & Values. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1991)

Robinson, R. S. "Comprehension of Narrative Television: Factors of Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 8:1 (1988): 68-73.

Schwartz, Dona. "Superbowl XXVI: Reflections on the Manufacture of Appearance." Visual Sociology, 8 (1): 23-33.

Vande Berg, Leah R. and Lawrence A. Wenner. (Eds.) Television Criticism. (New York: Longman, 1991).

X A3. Film/TV Aesthetics/Language of Film

Barker, David. "Television Production Techniques as Communication." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 2:3 (September, 1985): 234-246; Also in Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Carey, John. "Conventions and Meaning in Film." In Film Culture: Explorations of Cinema in Its Social Context. Sari Thomas, ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 110-125.

Cook, Russell. "The Phenomenology of Zettl's Television Space," Fifth Annual Visual Communication Conference, Breckenridge CO, 1991.

D'Agostino, P. (Ed.) Transmission: Theory and Practice for a New Television Aesthetic. (New York: Tanam Press, 1985)

Degge, R. M. "A Model for Visual Aesthetic Inquiry in Television. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 19 (1985): 85-102.

Frith, Uta and Jocelyn Robson. "Perceiving the Language of Films." Perception. 4 (1975): 97-103.

Gibbs, William J. and Robert E. Griffin. "Visual Effects in Video Production and Their Effect on Attitude and Cognition," In Judy Clark Baca, Darrel G. Beauchamp and Roberts N. Braden (Eds.) Visual Communication: Bridging Across Cultures. Proceedings of the IVLA Conference, 1991.

Hedges, I. Breaking the Frame: Film Language and the Experience of Limits. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).

Hobbs, R., R. Frost, A. Davis, and J. Stauffer. "How First-Time viewers Comprehend Editing Conventions." Journal of Communication. 38 (Autumn, 1988): 50-60.

Hochberg, Julian and V. Brooks. "Film Cutting and Visual Momentum." In R. A. Monty and J. W. Senders (Eds.) Eye Movement and Psychological Processes, II. (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978).

Hundley, Heather. "Seinfeld and Ellen: Is There a Significant Difference? A Content Analysis of Framing, Shot Type and Screen Depth." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, 1995.

Huston, Aletha C. John C. Wright, Ellen Wartella, Mabel L. Rice, B.A. Watkins, T. Campbell, and R. Potts. "Communicating More Than Content: Formal Features of Children's Television Programs." Journal of Communication 31 (Summer, 1981): 32-48.

McCain, T.A., J. Chilberg and J. Wakshlag. "The Effect of Camera Angle on Source Credibility and Attraction." Journal of Broadcasting. 17 (1977): 35-46.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Television Aesthetics in Education." Educational Technology. 31 (1991): 48-53.

Metallinos, Nikos. "Perceptual Factors in the Study of Television Aesthetics." In J.D. Baca, D.G. Beauchamp, and R. A. Braden (Eds.). Visual Communications: Bridging Across Cultures. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, 1992).

Monaco, James. How to Read a Film. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).

Newcomb, Horace. "Toward a Television Aesthetic." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Spottiswoode, R. A Grammar of the Film: An Analysis of Film Technique. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950).

Tarroni, E. "The Aesthetics of Television." In H. Newcomb. (Ed.) Television: The Critical view. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979).

Thorburn, David. "Television as an Aesthetic Medium." In James W. Carey (Ed.) Media, Myths, and Narratives: Television and the Press. Newbury Park CA: Sage, 1988).

Zettl, Herb. "A Rare Case of Television Aesthetics." Journal of the University Film Association. 30 (1978): 3-8.

Zettl, H. "Toward a Multi-Screen Television Aesthetic: Some Structural Considerations." Journal of Broadcasting. 21 (1977): 5-19.

Zettl, Herb. Sight, Sound, Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics. 2nd. ed. (Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 1990).

X A4. Documentary Media

Barry, Ann Marie. "Reading the Television Political Documentary: A Retrospective Look at the Interaction of Visual and Verbal Content and Rhetoric of "Teddy, '" British Film Institute and International Visual Literacy Association Symposium, London, July, 1990.

Brooks, Virginia Loring. "Why Dance Films do Not Look Right: A Study in the Nature of the Documentary of Movement as Visual Communication." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:2 (Spring 1984): 44-67.

Corner, John. (Ed.) Documentary and the Mass Media. (London: Edward Arnold, 1986).

Himmelstein, Hal. "Television News and the Television Documentary." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Linton, James M. "Documentary Film Research's Unrealized Potential in the Communication field." Communication. 13:2 (1992): 85-93.

Linton, James. "The Moral Dimension in Documentary." Journal of the University Film Association. 28:2 (Spring, 1976): 17-22.

Linton, James. "The 'Reel World" of the Courtroom: An Analysis of a Television Documentary About a Murder Trial." Canadian Communication Association Conference, 1988.

Richter, Richard. "Producing Documentaries for Network Television." Studies in Visual Communication. 8:1 (Winter, 1982): 55-60.

Rosenthal, Alan. "Documentary Film on Television: An Introduction." Studies in Visual Communication. 8:1 (Winter, 1982): 2-6.

Salcedo, A. "The Uses of Documentary Film" Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging 7:2 (1987): 46-60.

Snyder, Joel. "Documentary Without Ontology." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:1 (Winter, 1984): 78-95.

X A5. Broadcast Journalism

Barry, A. M. and Am Leaver. "Literature and Television Production: 1984 Newscast Project--An Interdisciplinary Project Based on the Power of Visual and Verbal Language. Journal of Visual Literacy. 10:1 (1990): 75-98.

Brosius, Hans-Bernd. "The Effects of Emotional Pictures in Television News." Communication Research. 20:1 (February, 1993): 105-124.

Brosius, Hans-Bernd. "Format Effects on Comprehension of Television News." Journalism Quarterly. 68:3 (Autumn, 1991): 396-401.

Coon, Stephen and Eric Hing-Tat Tse. "Negativity and Visualization as Criteria for News Selection in Local Television Newscasts." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Boston, MA, 1991.

Donsbach, Wolfgang, Hans-Bernd Brosius and Axel Mattenklott. "How Unique is the Perspective of Television? A Field Experiment on the Perception of a Campaign Event by Participants and Television Viewers." Political Communication. 10:1 (January/March, 1993): 37-53.

Doremus, Mark E. "The Use of Visuals to Clarify Ambiguous Verbal Information in a Television News Story." Journal of Visual Literacy. 12:1 (Spring, 1991);23-34.

Drew, Dan G. and Thomas Grimes. "Audio-visual Redundancy and TV News Recall." Communication Research. 14:4 (August, 1987): 452-461.

Edwardson, M., D. Grooms, and P. Pringle. "Visualization and TV News Information Gain." Journal of Broadcasting 20 (1976): 373-380.

Ericson, Richard, Patricia Baranek and Janet Chan. "Visualizing the News." In John Corner and Jeremy Hawthorn (Eds.) Communication Studies. London: Edward Arnold, 3rd ed. 1989.

Foote, Joe S. and Ann C. Saunders. "Graphic Forms in Network Television News." Journalism Quarterly, 67 (Autumn 1990): 501-507.

Frank, Robert. "The 'Grammar of Film' in Television News." Journalism Quarterly. 51 (1973): 245-250.

Gorney, Carole. "Numbers Versus Pictures: Did Network Television Sensationalize Chernobyl Coverage?" Journalism Quarterly, 69 (Summer 1992),: 455-465.

Graber, Doris. "Seeing is Remembering: How Visuals Contribute to Learning from Television News. " Journal of Communication. 40 (1990): 134-155.

Griffin, Michael. "Looking at TV News: Strategies for Research." Communication. 13:2 (1992): 121-141.

Grimes, Thomas. "Mild Auditory-visual Dissonance in Television News May Exceed Viewer Attentional Capacity." Human Communication Research. 18:2 (December, 1991): 268-298.

Gunter, B. "Remembering Television News: Effects of Picture Content." Journal of General Psychology. 102 (1980): 127-133.

Kepplinger, Hans. "Visual Bias in Television Campaign Coverage." Journalism Quarterly. 57 (1980): 432-446.

Kunz, William. "Network News and the Myths of the Vietnam War." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Winter, 1994): 10-12.

Kellner, Douglas. The Persian Gulf TV War. (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1992).

Lewis, Charles. "Exploring Context in the Viewing of Local TV News." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Mandell, L. M. and Shaw, D. L. "Judging People in the News--Unconsciously: Effect of Camera Angle and Bodily Activity." Journal of Broadcasting. 17 (1973): 353-362.

Newhagen, John and Byron Reeves. "The Evenings' Bad News: Effects of Compelling Negative Television News Images on Memory." Journal of Communication 42 (Spring, 1992): 25-41.

Slattery, Karen F. "Visual Information in Viewer Interpretation and Evaluation of Television News Stories." Journal of Visual Literacy. 10:1 (Spring, 1990): 26-44.

Smith, Conrad. "Visual Symbols of Disasters in Network TV News." Visual Communication 6, Flagstaff AZ, 1991.

Zettl, Herbert. "The Graphication and Personification of Television News." In Gary Burns and Robert J. Thompson (Eds.) Television Studies: Textual Analysis. (New York: Praeger, 1989): 137-163.

X A6. MTV

Aufderheide, Pat. "Music Videos: The Look of the Sound." In Todd Gitlin. (Ed). Watching Television. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.

Baxter, Richard L., Cynthia De Riermer, Ann Landini, Larry Leslie, and Michael W. Singletary. "A Content Analysis of Music Videos." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 29:3 (Summer, 1985): 333-340.

Maher, Daniel R. "MTV and Sesame Street: Visual Images and Language," In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts A. Braden, (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy . IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990:145-150.

Sherman, Barry L. "Perceiving and Processing Music Television." In Jennings Bryant and Dolf Zilman (Eds.) Responding to the Screen. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1991)

Signorelli, Nancy, Douglas McLeod and Elaine Healy. "Gender Stereotypes in MTV Commercials: The Beat Goes On." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 38 (Winter 1994): 91-101.

Voelker, David H. and Gary R. Pettey. "Schema-Triggered Cognitive and Affective Response to Music: Applying an Information-Processing Model to Rock 'N' Roll." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, Washington D.C., 1989.

Willinsky, J. M. "The Rock Video: A New Frontier for Visual Literacy." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 5:2 (1985): 43-48.

X A7. New Media/Multi Media/Virtual Media

Borger, G. Ferwerda. The World of 3-D: A Practical Guide to Stereo Photography. 2nd ed. (The Netherlands: 3-D Book Publication, 1987).

Braden, R. A. and J. F. Moore. "Interactive Video: A Delivery System for Electronic Imagery." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 3:2: 55-60.

Horibuchi, Seiji. (Ed.) Stereograms. (San Francisco: Cadence, 1994).

Jaber, William E. and Feng Hou. "Visual Resources on the Internet." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Jones, Stephen. "A Sense of Space: Virtual Reality, Authenticity and the Aural." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 10 (September, 1993): 238-252.

Lloyd R. Scott. "An Introduction to Educational Holography." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Lockee, Barbara and Tom Hergert. "Learning Visual Design Through Hypermedia: Pathways to Visual Literacy." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Mahoney, Diana Phillips. "Virtual Science." Computer Graphics World. (July, 1994): 20-26.

McLellan, Hilary. "From Cubism to Holography." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990)..

McLellan, Hilary. "Magical Stories: Blending Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

McLellan, Hilary. "Avatars, Affordances, and Interfaces: Virtual Reality Tools for Learning." In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1994).

McLellan, Hilary. "Virtual Reality: Visualization in Three Dimensions." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art ,Science and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Metallinos, Nikos. "High Definition Television: New Perceptual, Cognitive and Aesthetic Challenges." Canadian Journal of Educational Technology. 20 (1991): 121-129.

Moore, David M. (Mike), Robert J. Myers, John K. Burton. "Multimedia: Promise, Reality and Future." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1995).

Oppenheimer, Todd. "Exploring the Interactive Future." Columbia Journalism Review. (November/December 1993): 34-37.

Reaves, Sheila. "The Unintended Effects of New Technology (And Why We Can Expect More)." Visual Communication Quarterly. 2:3 (Summer, 1995): 11-15, 24.

Retzer, Martin. "Visualizing Cognitive Processes in Hypermedia Systems. In Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) Investigating Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

Search, Patricia. "The Art and Science of Hypermedia." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science. and Visual Literacy (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Wyatt, Roger B. "Cinematic Thinking in the Age of Computing." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell E. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1990).

X A8. TV Commercials

Barbatsis, Gretchen. "Negative Campaign Commercials and Media Rage: Understanding that Pictures Cannot Lie," Speech Communication Association Annual Meeting, Chicago 1990.

Gronbeck, Bruce E. "Mythic Portraiture in the 1988 Iowa Presidential Caucus Bio-Ads." In Leah R. Vande Berg and Lawrence A. Wenner. (Eds.) Television Criticism. (New York: Longman, 1991).

Hirschman, Elizabeth C. "Point of View: Sacred, Secular and Mediating Consumption Imagery in Television commercials." Journal of Advertising Research. (December 1990/January 1991): 38-43.

Krugman, Dean M., Glen T. Cameron and Candace McKearney White. "Visual Attention to Programming and Commercials: The Use of In-home Observations." Journal of Advertising 24:1 (Spring, 1995): 1-13.

Moriarty, Sandra. "A Feature Analysis of Clio-Winning Ads," Journalism Quarterly, 57:2, Summer, 1980, pp. 321-323

Unger, Lynette S., Diane McOnocha and John A. Faier. "The Use of Nostalgia in Television Advertising: A Content Analysis." Journalism Quarterly. 68:3 (Autumn 1991): 329-337.

Young, Charels E. and Michael Robinson. "The Visual Experience of New and Established Product Commercials." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael R. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18 (1990): 545-549.

X B. Photography

Adams, Robert. Beauty in Photography: Essays in Defense of Traditional Values. (New York: Aperture, 1981).

Adams, R. C. Gary A. Copeland, Marjorie J. Fish and Melissa Hughes. "Effect of Framing on Selection of Photographs of Men and Women." Journalism Quarterly 57 (1980); 463-67.

Ades, Dawn. Photomontage. rev. ed. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1986).

The American Image: Photographs from the National Archives. Introduction by Alan Trachtenberg. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1979).

Arnheim, Rudolf. "On the Nature of Photography." Critical Inquiry. 1 (1974): 149-161.

Barrow, Thomas f., Shelley Armitage and William E. Tydeman (Eds.). Reading into Photography: Selected Essays, 1959-1980. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982).

Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. (New York: Hill and Wang. 1981).

Barthes, Roland. "The Photographic Message." In Peninah Petruck, (Ed.) The Camera Viewed: Writings on Twentieth Century Photography. Vol. II. (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979).

Bayer, Jonathan (Ed.). Reading Photographs: Understanding the Aesthetics of Photography. (New York: Pantheon, 1977).

Bell, Desmond. "Picturing the Landscape: Di Grune Insel. Tourist Images of Ireland." European Journal of Communication. 10:1 (1995): 41-62.

Beloff, Halla. Camera Culture. (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985).

Berger, John. "Understanding a Photograph." In A. Trachtenberg (Ed.) Classic Essays on Photography. (New Haven CT: Leete's Island Books, 1980).

Berger, John. About Looking. (New York: Pantheon, 1980).

Bernard, Bruce. Photodiscovery: Masterworks of Photography 1840-1940. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980).

Bolton, Richard (Ed.). The Contest of Meaning. (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1989).

Bourdieu, Pierre. Photography: A Middle-brow Art. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Braive, Michael. The Photograph as Social History. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966).

Brook, James T. A Viewer's Guide to Looking at Photographs. (Wilmette, IL: Aurelian Press, 1977).

Burgin, Victor , (Ed). Thinking Photography, (London: Macmillan, 1992).

Burgin, Victor. "Seeing Sense." In Howard Davis and Paul Walton (Eds.) Language, Image and Media. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983).

Byers, Paul. "Still Photographs in the Systematic Recording and Analysis of Behavioral Data." Human Organization 23:1 (1964): 78-84.

Byers, Paul. "Cameras Don't Take Pictures." Columbia University Forum. 9 (Winter, 1966): 27-31.

Cavallo, Robert M. and Stuart Kahan. Photography: What's the Law? 2nd. ed. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1979).

Chernoff, George and Hershel B. Sarbin. Photography and the Law. 5th ed. (Garden City, NY: Amphoto, 1975).

Cole, Bernard and Milton Meltzer. The Eye of Conscience: Photographers and Social Change. (Chicago: Follett, 1974).

Coleman, A. D. Light Readings: A Photography Critic's Writings 1968-1978. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979).

Culver, Kathleen B. "An Open Door With a Big Spring: Cameras in Federal Courts." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Spring 1994): 17-18.

Daniel, Pete. Official Images: New Deal Photography. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987).

Darrah, William C. The World of Stereography. (Gettysburg: William C. Darrah, 1977).

Dyer, R. The Matter of Images. Essays on Representation. (London: Routledge, 1993).

Evenrden, Neil. "Seeing and Being Seen: A Response to Susan Sontag's Essays on Photography." Soundings (Spring, 1985): 72-87.

Fehlner, Christine L. "Faces in the News: Gender Comparisons of Magazine Photographs." Journal of Communication. 36 (Autumn 1986): 70-79.

Fosdick, James A. and Percy H. Tannenbaum. "The Encoder's Intent and Use of Stylistic Elements in Photographs." Journalism Quarterly 41 (1964): 174-182.

Freedberg, David. The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989).

Freund, Gisele. Photography and Society. (Boston: David R. Godine, 1980).

Frobisch, Dieter and Hartmut Lanprecht. Graphic Photo Design . (Garden City NY: Amphoto, 1977).

Girvin, Robert E. "Photography as Social Documentation." Journalism Quarterly 24 (September 1947): 202-220.

Goldberg, Vicki. The Power of Photography. (New York: Abbeville Press, 1991).

Goldberg, Vicki, (Ed.). Photography in Print. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981).

Grundberg, Andy and Kathleen McCarthy Gauss. Photography and Art: Interactions Since 1946. (New York: Abbeville, 1987).

Guimond, James. American Photography and the American Dream. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991).

Hagen, Charles. "Photographs and Time." Afterimage. 7:9 (April, 1980): 6-7.

Halsman, Phillipe. Halsman on the Creation of Photographic Ideas. (New York: Ziff-Davis, 1961).

Hazard, William R. "Responses to News Pictures: A Study in Perceptual Unity." Journalism Quarterly 37 (1960): 515-524.

Henry, W. P. and C. H. Solano. "Photographic Style and Personality: Developing a Coding System for Photographs." The Journal of Psychology. 115 (1983): 79-87.

Heyman, Ken and John Durniak. The Right Picture. (New York: Amphoto, 1986).

Hightower, Paul. "The Influence of Training on Taking and Judging Photos," Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 682-86,

Hine, Lewis. "Social Photography." In Alan Trachtenberg (Ed.) Classic Essays on Photography (New Haven, Leet's Island Books, 1980).

Hunter, Jefferson. Image and Word: The Interaction of Twentieth-Century Photographs and Texts. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).

Hurley, Gerald D. and Angus McDougall. Visual Impact in Print. (Chicago: American Publishers Press, 1971).

Jussim, Estelle. The Eternal Moment: Essays on the Photographic Image. (New York: Aperture, 1989).

Kozloff, Max. The Privileged Eye: Essays on Photography. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1987).

Kozloff, Max. "Variations on a Theme of Portraiture." Aperture. (May, 1989): 6-15.

Lain, Laurence B. "How Readers View Mug Shots." Newspaper Research Journal 8 (Spring 1987): 43-52.

Lain, Laurence G. and Philip J. Harwood. "Mug Shots and Reader Attitudes Toward People in the News." Journalism Quarterly. 69:2 (Summer, 1992): 293-300.

Livingston, Jane. Odyssey: The Art of Photography at National Geographic. (Charlottesville: Thomasson-Grant, 1988).

Lyons, Nathan. Photographers on Photography. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966).

MacLean, Malcolm S., Jr. and William R. Hazard. "Women's Interest in Pictures; The Badger Village Study." Journalism Quarterly 30 (1953): 139-162.

MacLean, Malcolm S. Jr. and Anne Li-An Kao. "Picture Selection: An Editorial Game." Journalism Quarterly. 40 (1963): 230-232.

MacLean, Malcolm S. Jr. and Anne Li-An Kao. Editorial Predictions of Magazine Picture Appeals. (Iowa City: School of Journalism, University of Iowa, 1965).

McIssac, M.S. "Effects of Instruction in Photography on Aesthetic and Technical Skills." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 4:2 ( 1984): 47-52.

Malcolm, Janet. Diana and Nikon. (Boston: David R. Godine, 1980).

Milgram, Stanley. "The Image-Freezing Machine." Psychology Today. 10 (1977): 50-54, 108.

Newhall, Beaumont (Ed). Photography: Essays & Images. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1980).

Nir, Yeshayahu. "Cultural Predispositions in Early Photography: The Case of the Holy Land." Journal of Communication. 35 (Summer 1984): 32-50.

Nye, David. Image Worlds. ( Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1985.)

Papson, Stephen. "Looking at Nature: The Politics of Landscape Photography." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 4-12.

Patterson, Freeman. Photography and the Art of Seeing. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979).

Petruck, Peninah (Ed.) The Camera Viewed: Writings on Twentieth Century Photography. 2 vols. (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979).

Ragan, Janet Mills and Albert D. Smouse. "Pose Preference in Social and Business Photographs." Studies in Visual Communication 7:3 (Summer 1981): 76-82.

Rosenblum, Barbara. Photographers at Work: A Sociology of Photographic Style. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978).

Rotkin, Charles E. Professional Photographer's Survival Guide. (New York: American Photographic Book Publishing, 1982).

Rudisill, Richard. Mirror Image: The Influence of the Daguerreotype on American Society. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971).

Scharf, Aaron. Art and Photography. (New York: Penguin Books, 1986).

Schuneman, R. Smith. "Photographic Communication: An Evolving Historical Discipline." In Ronald T. Farrar and John D. Stevens (Eds.) Mass Media and the National Experience. (New York: Harper and Row).

Scruton, Roger. "The Eye of the Camera." In The Aesthetic Understanding. (London: Methuen, 1983).

Sekula, Alan. "The Traffic in Photographs." In Benjamin H. D. Buchloch, Serge Guilbaut and David Solkin (Eds). Modernism and Modernity. (Halifax: Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1983): 121-154.

Sekula, Alan. Photography Against the Grain. (Halifax: The Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1984).

Shoemaker, Pamila J. and James A. Fosdick. "How Varying Reproduction Methods Affects Response to Photographs." Journalism Quarterly 59 (1982): 13-20, 65.

Sonata, Susan. On Photography (New York: Delta, 1978).

Squiers, Carol (Ed.). The Critical Image: Essays on Contemporary Photography. (Seattle: Bay Press, 1990).

Stroebel, Leslie, Hollis Todd and Richard Zakia. Visual Concepts for Photographers. New York: Focal Press, 1980).

Stroebel, Leslie, John Compton, Ira Current and Richard Zakia. Photographic Materials and Processes. (Boston: Focal Press, 1986).

Szarkowski, John. The Photographer's Eye. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1980).

Szarkowski, John. Looking at Photographs. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1973).

Szarkowski, John. Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 1960. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1978).

Szarkowski, John. Photography Until Now. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1990).

Tannenbaum, Percy H. and James A. Fosdick. "The Effect of Lighting Angle on Judgment on Photographed Subjects." Audio Visual Communication Review 8 (1960): 253-262.

Thayer, Frank. "Legal Liabilities for Pictures." Journalism Quarterly 24 (September 1947): 233-237.

Trachtenberg, Alan. "Reflections on Art in Photography." Afterimage. 7:9 (April 1980): 10-11.

Trachtenberg, Alan, (Ed.). Classic Essays on Photography. (New Haven, CT: Leet's Island Books, 1980).

Trachtenberg, Alan. Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans. (New York: Hill and Wang, 1989).

Van Tubergen, G. N. and D. L. Mahsman. "Unflattering Photos: How People Respond." Journalism Quarterly. 51 (Summer 1974): 317-319.

Walters, Basil L. "Picture vs Type Display in Reporting the News." Journalism Quarterly. 24 (1947): 193-196.

Wanta, Wayne and Virginia Roark. "Response to Photographs." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Spring, 1994): 12-13.

Warlaumont, Hazel. "Blurring Advertising and Editorial Photographic Formats." Visual Communication Quarterly. 2 (Summer, 1995): 4-7.

Webster, Frank. The New Photography. (London: John Calder, 1980).

Whiting, John R. Photography is a Language. 1946. Reprint (New York: Arno Press, 1979).

Wicks, Robert. "Photography as a Representational Art." The British Journal of Aesthetics. 29 (Winter, 1989): 1-9.

Wolf, Rita and Gerald L. Grotta. "Images: A Question of Readership." Newspaper Research Journal. 6 (Winter 1985): 30-36.

Younger, Daniel P. (Ed.). Multiple Views: Logan Grant Essays on Photography 1983-89. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991).

Zakia, Richard D. Perception and Photography. (Rochester NY: Light Impressions Corp., 1979).

Zakia, Richard D. and H. N. Todd. 101 Experiments in Photography (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan and Morgan, 1973).

Zakia, Richard D. Perceptual Quotes for Photographers, (Rochester: Light Impressions Corp., 1980).

X B1. Photojournalism

Baynes, Ken. Scoop, Scandal and Strife. (New York: Hastings House, 1971).

Becker, Karin E. "To Control Our Image: Photojournalists and New Technology." Media, Culture and Society. 13 (1991): 381-387.

Benson, Harry. Harry Benson on Photojournalism. (New York: Harmony Books, 1982).

Bethune, Beverly (Ed.). Women in Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1986).

Bethune, Beverly M. "Profile of Photojournalists on Two metropolitan Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly 58 (1981): 106-108.

Bethune, Beverly M. "A Sociological Profile of the Daily Newspaper Photographer." Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 606-614, 743.

Blackwood, Roy E. "International News Photos in U.S. and Canadian Papers." Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 195-199.

Bourke-White, Margaret. Portrait of Myself. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963).

Brown, Theodore M. Margaret Bourke-White: Photojournalist. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1972).

Buell, Hal and Saul Pett. The Instant it Happened. (New York: Associated Press, 1975).

Caldwell, Erskine and Margaret Bourke-White. You Have Seen Their Faces. (New York: Viking Press, 1937).

Callahan, Sean. The Photographs of Margaret Bourke-White. (New York: New York Graphic Society, 1972).

Capa, Cornell. The Concerned Photographer. (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1968).

Capa, Cornell. The Concerned Photographer 2. (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1972).

Capa, Robert. Images of War. (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1964).

Chapnick, Howard. Truth Needs No Ally: Inside Photojournalism. (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1994).

Coldwell, Thomas. "Professionalism and Performance Among Newspaper Photographers." Gazette. 20 (1974): 73-81.

Craig, R. Stephen. "Cameras in Courtrooms in Florida." Journalism Quarterly 56 (1979): 703-710.

Dow, Caroline. "Prior Restraint on Photojournalists." Journalism Quarterly. 64 (1987): 88-93, 118.

Duncan, David Douglas. This Is War! (New York: Bantam, 1967).

Edey, Maitland. Great Photographic Essays from Life. (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1978).

Edom, Clifton Cedric. Photojournalism: Principles and Practices, 2nd ed. (Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown Co., 1980).

Edom, Clifton. "Photo-propaganda: The History of Its Development." Journalism Quarterly. 24 (Spring 1947): 221-226.

Eisenstaedt, Alfred. The Eye of Eisenstaedt. (New York: Viking Press, 1969).

Evans, Harold, ed. Pictures on a Page: Photo-Journalism, Graphics and Picture Editing. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978).

Evans, Walker. American Photographs. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1938).

Evans, Walker and James Agee. Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960).

Fosdick, James A. "Photography in War and Peace." Journalism Quarterly. 24 (September 1947): 227-232.

Fosdick, James A. "Picture Content and Source in Four Daily Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 46 (Autumn 1969): 368-371.

Frank, Robert. The Americans. (New York: Aperture, 1969).

Freedman, Jill. Circus Days. (New York: Harmony Books, 1975).

Freedman, Jill. Firehouse. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1978).

Freedman, Jill. Street Cops. (New York: Harper and Row, 1981).

Gernsheim, Helmut and Allison Gernsheim. Roger Fenton, Photographer of the Crimean War. (London: Secker and Warburg, 1954).

Goldberg, Vicki. Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography. (New York: Harper and Row, 1986).

Griffiths, Philip Jones. Vietnam Inc. (New York: MacMillan, 1971).

Hall, Stuart. "The Determinations of News-photographs." Working Papers in Cultural Studies. 3 (Autumn 1972): 53-87.

Hayes, Susan. "Photographing Hunger: Paving the Way with Good Intentions." Continuum. 6:2 (1993): 220-234.

Hicks, Wilson. Words and Pictures. 1952 Reprint (New York: Arno Press, 1973).

Hine, Lewis. America and Lewis Hine: Photographs 1904-1940. (Millerton, NY: Aperture, 1977).

Hurley, F. Jack. Russell Lee Photographer. (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1978).

Jay, Bill. "The Romantic Machine: Towards a Definition of Humanism in Photography." Massachusetts Review (Winter, 1978): 647-662.

Johnson, William S. (Ed). W. Eugene Smith: Master of the Photographic Essay. (New York: Harper and Row, 1981).

Joly, Martine. "Information and Argument in Press Photographs." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Spring 1993): 16-22.

Kalish, Stanley and Clifton C. Edom. Picture Editing. (New York: Rinehart, 1951).

Kennerly, David Hume. Shooter. (New York: Newsweek Books, 1980).

Kobre, Kenneth. Photojournalism: The Professionals' Approach,. (Somerville MA: Curtin & London, 1980).

Knightley, Phillip. The First Casualty. (London: Andre Deutsch, 1975).

Kozol, Wendy. Life's America. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994).

LaBelle, David. The Great Picture Hunt. Bowling Green, KY: Western Kentucky University, 1989).

Lange, Dorothea and Paul S. Taylor. An American Exodus. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1939).

Langston, Loup M. "Photo Coverage of the Third World in Four Prestige U.S. Newspapers." Newspaper Research Journal. 12 (Fall 1991): 98-107.

Leekley, Sheryle and John Leekley. Moments: The Pulitzer Prize Photographs. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1978).

Lester, Paul Martin. "Front Page Mug Shots: A Content Analysis of Five U.S. Newspapers in 1986." Newspaper Research Journal 9 (Spring 1988): 1-9.

Lindekugel, D. M. Shooters: TV News Photographers and Their Work. (Westport CT: Praeger, 1994).

Linton, James. "Camera Access to Courtrooms: Canadian, U.S. and Australian Experiences." Canadian Journal of Communication. 18:1 (1993): 15-32.

Luebke, Barbara F. "Out of Focus: Images of Women and Men in Newspaper Photographs." Sex Roles 20 (1989): 121-133.

McCullin, Donald. Is Anyone Taking Any Notice? (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973).

McCullin, Donald. Hearts of Darkness. (London: Secker and Warburg, 1980).

McDougall, Angus and Veita Jo Hampton. Picture Editing and Layout. (Columbia MO: Viscom Press, 1990).

Marcus, Adrianne. Photojournalism: Mary Ellen Mark and Annie Leibovitz. (Los Angeles: Alskog/Petersen Publishing Co., 1974).

Meiselas, Susan. Carnival Strippers. (New York: Pantheon, 1976).

Meiselas, Susan. Nicaragua: June 1978-July 1979. (New York: Pantheon, 1981).

Moeller, Susan D. Shooting War: Photography and the American Experience of Combat. (New York: Basic Books, 1989).

Nesterenko, Alexander and C. Zoe Smith. "Contemporary Interpretations of Robert Frank's The Americans." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (Autumn 1984): 567-577.

Ohrn, Karin Baker. "How Photographs Become News: Photojournalists at Work." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Corvallis OR, 1983

Pasternack, Steve and Don R. Martin. "Daily Newspaper Photojournalism in the Rocky Mountain West." Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 132-135, 222.

Patterson, Oscar, III. "Television's Living Room War in Print: Vietnam in News Magazines." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (Spring 1984): 35-39.

Perlmutter, David. "Opening Up Photojournalism." Visual Communication Quarterly 2 (Spring, 1995): 9-11.

Rayfield, Stanley. How LIFE Gets the Story: Behind the Scenes in Photojournalism. (Garden City: Doubleday, 1955).

Rothstein, Arthur. Photojournalism. (Garden City, NY: Amphoto, 1979).

Sanders, Keith P. "Research in Photojournalism." In Clifton C. Edom, Photojournalism. (Dubuque, IA: W.C.. Brown Co., 1976).

Schuneman, R. Smith (Ed.). Photographic Communication: Principles, Problems and Challenges of Photojournalism. (New York: Hastings House, 1972).

Sentman, Mary Alice. "Black and White: Disparity in Coverage by Life Magazine from 1937 to 1972." Journalism Quarterly 60 (1983): 501-508.

Sherer, Michael D. "Vietnam War Photos and Public Opinion." Journalism Quarterly (Summer 1989): 391-395, 530.

Sherer, Michael D. "Invasion of Poland Photos in Four American Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (Summer 1984): 422-426.

Sherer, Michael D. "The Problem of Trespass for Photojournalists." Journalism Quarterly 62 (1985): 154-56, 222.

Sherer, Michael D. "The Problem of Libel for Photojournalists." Journalism Quarterly 63 (1986): 618-623.

Sherer, Michael D. "A Survey of Photojournalists and Their Encounters with the Law." Journalism Quarterly 64 (1987): 499-502, 575.

Sherer, Michael D. "Comparing Magazine Photos of Vietnam and Korean Wars." Journalism Quarterly 65 (1988): 752-756.

Sherer, Michael D. "Photojournalism and the Infliction of Emotional Distress." Communications and the Law 8 (April 1986): 27-37.

Siebert, Frederick S. "Trends in the Use of Pictures by Three Newspapers." Journalism Quarterly. 29 (1952): 212-213.

Singletary, Michael W. and Chris Lamb. "News Values in Award-Winning Photos." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (Spring 1984): 104-108, 233.

Singletary, Michael W. "Newspaper Photographs: A Content Analysis, 1936-76." Journalism Quarterly 55 (1978): 585-589.

Slattery, Karen and Jim Fosdick. "Professionalism in Photojournalism: A Female/Male Comparison." Journalism Quarterly. 56 (Summer 1979): 243-247.

Smith, W. Eugene. Minamata. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975).

Stolley, Richard B. "People Pictures." Columbia Journalism Review. (September/October, 1994: 41-44.

Streitmatter, R. "The Rise and Triumph of the White House Photo Opportunity." Journalism Quarterly 65 (1988): 981-985.

Stephenson, William. "Principles of Selection of News Pictures." Journalism Quarterly. 37:1 (1960): 61-68.

Taylor, John. War Photography: Realism in the British Press. (London: Routledge, 1991).

Thompson, Kenrick S. and Alfred C. Clarke. "Photographic Imagery and the Vietnam War: An Unexamined Perspective." The Journal of Psychology. 87 (July 1974): 279-292.

Thompson, Kenrick S., Alfred C. Clarke and Simon Dinitz. "Reactions to My-Lai: A Visual-Verbal Comparison." Sociology and Social Research. 58 (January 1974): 122-129.

Trachtenberg, Alan. America and Lewis Hine. (New York: Aperture, 1977).

Trayes, Edward J. and Bruce I. Cook. "Picture Emphasis in Final Editions of 16 Dailies." Journalism Quarterly. 54 (Autumn 1977): 595-598.

Tsang, Kuo-Jen. "News Photos in Time and Newsweek." Journalism Quarterly 61 (1984): 578-584, 723.

Vitray, Laura and John Mills, Jr. and Roscoe Ellard. Pictorial Journalism. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939).

Wanta, Wayne. "The Effects of Dominant Photographs: An Agenda-Setting Experiment." Journalism Quarterly. 65:1 (Spring, 1988): 107-111.

Wanta, Wayne and Dawn Leggett. "Gender Stereotypes in Wire Service Sports Photos." Newspaper Research Journal 10 (Spring 1989): 105-114.

Wayne, Ivor. "American and Soviet Themes and Values: A Content Analysis of Pictures in Popular Magazines." Public Opinion Quarterly. 20 (Spring 1956): 197-211.

Weinberg, Adam D. On the Line: The New Color Photojournalism. (Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1986).

Whelan, Richard. Robert Capa: A Biography. (New York: Knopf, 1985).

White, Frank William. "Cameras in the Courtroom: A U.S. Survey." Journalism Monographs. 60 (April 1979).

Woo, Jisuk. "Journalism Objectivity in News Magazine Photography." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Summer, 1994): 9-11.

Leslie, Larry Z. "Newspaper Photo Coverage of Censure of McCarthy." Journalism Quarterly. 63 (Winter 1986): 850-853.

X C. Journalism/News

Gerbner, George. "Persian Gulf War, the Movie." In Hamid Mowlana, George Gerbner, and Herbert I. Schiller. (Eds.)Triumph of the Image: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf-- A Global Perspective. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1992).

Glassman, Carl and Keith Kenney. "Myths and Presidential Campaign Photographs." Visual Communication Quarterly 1:4 (Fall, 1994).

Graber, Doris. Processing the News: How People Tame the Information Tide. 2nd. ed. (White Plains NY: Longman, 1988).

Hagaman, Dianne. "The Joy of Victory, the Agony of Defeat: Stereotypes in Newspaper Sports Feature Photographs," Visual Sociology 8 (2): 48-66.

Kenski, Henry C., Sharon Jarvis and Tom Reichert. "'Here's the Deal, See:' What Viewers Actually Saw of Perot in 1992 Media Coverage." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Lester, Paul. "Use of Visual Elements on Newspaper Front Pages." Journalism Quarterly. 65:3 (Fall, 1988): 760-763.

Lester, Paul. "Front Page Mug Shots: A Content Analysis of Five U.S. Newspapers, 1986." Newspaper Research Journal. 9:3 (Spring 1988): 1-9.

Morello, John. "Argument and Visual Structuring in the 1984 Mondale-Regan Debates." Western Journal of Speech Communication. 52, 1988: 27-290

Morello, John. Visual Structuring of the 1976 and 1984 Nationally Televised Presidential Debates." Central States Speech Journal. 39 (3-4), 1988: 233-243

Moriarty, Sandra and David Shaw. "An Antiseptic War: Were News Magazine Images of the Gulf War Too Soft?" Visual Communication Quarterly. 2 (Spring, 1995): 4-8.

Moriarty, Sandra and Mark Popovich. "News Magazine Visuals and the 1992 Presidential Election," Magazine Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Kansas City, 1993.

Moriarty, Sandra, Mark Popovich and Beverley Pitts. "News Magazine Coverage of the 1988 Presidential Campaign: Images and Issues," Mass Comm Review 20:1 and 2, (1993): 99-111.

Moriarty, Sandra and Mark Popovich. "News Magazine Visuals and the 1988 Presidential Election," Journalism Quarterly, 68:3 (1991): 371-380.

Moriarty, Sandra and Gina Garramone. "A Study of Newsmagazine Photographs of the 1984 Campaign," Journalism Quarterly, 63: (Winter 1986).

Mowlana, Hamid, George Gerbner, and Herbert I. Schiller. (Eds.)Triumph of the Image: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf-- A Global Perspective. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1992).

Mullen, Lawrence J. "Framing the President: An Analysis of Bill Clinton's Visual Image as Depicted on Nationally Televised Newscasts." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Newhagen, J. E. and B. Reeves. "The Evening's Bad News: Effects of Compelling Negative Television News Images on Memory." Journal of Communication. 42 (1992): 25-41.

Snyder, Robert. "Information Processing: A Visual Theory for Television News." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 69-76.

Tiemens, Robert, Susa Hellweg, Philip Kipper, and Stephen Phillips. "An Integrative Verbal and Visual Analysis of the Carter-Reagan Debate." Communication Quarterly, 33: 34-42

Tiemens, Robert K. "A Visual Analysis of the 1976 Presidential Debates." Speech Communication Association Conference, Washington, D.C., 1976; Also in Communication Monographs 45 (1978): 362-370.

Tsang, Kuo-jen. "News Photos in Time and Newsweek." Journalism Quarterly. 61 (1984): 578-584, 723

Wanta, Wayne. "The Effects of Dominant Photographs: An Agenda-Setting Experiment." Journalism Quarterly. 65:1 (Spring, 1988): 107-111.

X D. PR/Advertising/Consumer Behavior

Alesandrini, Kathy Lutz and Anees A. Sheikh. "Research on Imagery: Implications for Advertising." In A.A. Sheikh (Ed.) Imagery: Current Theory, Research and Application, 1983: 353-556.

Alexander, Victoria D. "The Image of Children in Magazine Advertisements from 1905 to 1990." Communication Research. 21:6 (December 1994): 742-765.

Babin, Lauri, Alvin C. Burns, and Abhijit Biswas. "A Framework Providing Direction for Research on Communications Effects of Mental Imagery-Evoking Advertising Strategies." In John F. Sherry, Jr. and Brian Sternthal (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 19 (1992): 621-628.

Belk, Russell W. and Richard W. Pollay. "Images of Ourselves: The Good Life in Twentieth Century Advertising." Journal of Consumer Research. 11 (March, 1985): 887-895.

Bone, Paula Fitzgerald and Pam Scholder Ellen. "The Generation and Consequences of Communication-evoked Imagery." Journal of Consumer Research. 19 (June 1992): 93-104.

Craig, Robert. "Advertising as Visual Communication." Communication. 13:3 (December, 1992): 165-179.

Dickson, Peter R., Robert E. Burnkrant, Paul W. Miniard, and H. R. Unnava. "If It Isn't a Duck Then Why did It Quack? Competing Explanations for an Observed Effect of Illustrations in an Advertisement." In Richard J. Lutz (Ed.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 13 (Provo UT: Association for consumer Research): 153-157.

Dobni, Dawn and George M. Zinkhan. "In Search of Brand Image: A Foundations Analysis." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 110-119.

Edel, Julie A. and Richard Staelin. "The Information Processing of Pictures in Print Advertisements." Journal of Consumer Research. 10 (June, 1983): 145-161.

Ellen, Pam Scholder and Paula Fitzgerald Bone. "Measuring Communication-evoked Imagery Processing." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael R. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 18. (Provo UT: Association of Consumer Research): 806-812.

Golden, Linda L. and Mayur Sirdesai, "Chernoff Faces: A Useful Technique for Comparative Image Analysis and Representation." In John F. Sherry, Jr. and Brian Sternthal. (Eds) Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 19 (1992): 123-128.

Hecker, Sidney and David W. Stewart. Nonverbal Communication in Advertising. (Lexington Mass: Lexington Books, 1988).

Hirschman, Elizabeth C. "The Effect of Verbal and Pictorial Advertising Stimuli on Aesthetic, Utilitarian and Familiarity Perceptions." Journal of Advertising 15:2 (1986): 27-34.

Homer, Pamela M. and Lynn R. Kahle. "A Social Adaption Explanation of the Effects of Surrealism on Advertising." Journal of Advertising. 15:2 (1986): 50-60.

Houston, Michael J., Terry L. Childers, and Susan E. Heckler. "Picture-Word Consistency and the Elaborative Processing of Advertisements." Journal of Marketing Research. 13 (December, 1987): 359-369.

Kervin, Denise. "Advertising and Persuasion: From 'Logical' Argumentation to Seductive Ambiguity." Journal of Visual Literacy 12:2 (Autumn, 1992): 8-41.

Kidd, Virginia. "An Analysis of The California Tobacco Education Campaign's Visual Anti-Smoking Messages." Visual Communication 8, Feather River CA, 1994.

King, Karen W., Leonard N. Reid, Young-Sook Moon, and Debra Ringold. "Changes in the Visual Imagery of Cigarette Ads, 1954-1986." Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. 10 (1991): 63-80.

Liu, Scott S. "Picture-Image Memory of TV Advertising in Low-Involvement Situations: A Psycophysiological Analysis." Current Issues and Research in Advertising . 9 (1&2), 1986.

Lutz, Kathy and Richard J. Lutz. "Imagery-eliciting Strategies: Review and Implications of Research." In H. Keith Hunt (Ed.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 5 (Ann Arbor MI: Association for Consumer Research) 1978: 611-620.

MacInnis, Deborah J. "Constructs and Measures of Individual Differences in Imagery Processing: A Review." In Melanie Wallendort and Paul Anderson (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 14. (Provo UT: Association for consumer Research) 1987: 88-92.

MacInnis Deborah J. and Linda L. Price. "The Role of Imagery in Information Processing: Review and Extensions." Journal of Consumer Research. 13 (March, 1987): 473-491.

MacInnis, Deborah J. and Linda L. Price. "An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Imagery on Expectations and Satisfaction." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 41-47.

Messaris, Paul. "Associational Imagery in Magazine Advertisements." Visual Communication 3, Park City UT, June 1989.

Mick, David. "Consumers' Interpretations of Advertising Imagery: A Visit to the Hell of Connotation," In Elizabeth C. Hirschman, (Ed.) Interpretive Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, 1989.

Miller, Christine. "Picturing the Academy: Visual Representations of Higher Education Institutions." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Miniard, Paul W., Sunil Bhatla, Kenneth R. Lord, Peter R. Dickson, and H. Rao Unnava. "Picture-based Persuasion Processes and the Moderating Role of Involvement." Journal of Consumer Research. 198 (June, 1991): 92-107.

Mitchell, Andrew A. "The Effects of Visual and Emotional Advertising: An Information Processing Approach." In Larry Percy and Arch Woodside (Eds.) Advertising and Consumer Psychology. Lexington MA: Lexington Books, 1983): 197-217.

Moriarty, Sandra. "A Content Analysis of Visuals Used in Print Media Advertising," Journalism Quarterly, 64: 2-3, Summer 1987, pp. 550-554

Moriarty, Sandra. "Visual Communication in Print Advertising," Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging, 5:2 (Fall, 1985): 37-41

Moriarty, Sandra. "The Role of Visuals in Advertising," In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1986 IVLA Conference, Madison, WI, October 1986

Nelson, Douglas L. "Remembering Pictures and Words: Appearance, Significance and Name." In Richard J. Harris (Ed.) Information Processing Research in Advertising. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1983): 45-76.

Pollay, R. W. and Ssteve Mainprize. "Headlining of Visuals in Print Advertising: A Typology of Tactical Techniques." In Donald R. Glover (Ed.) Proceedings of the American Academy Advertising, 1984.

Pollay, Richard W. and Steve Mainprize. "Captioned Visuals in Print Advertising: A Typology of Techniques." In Proceedings of the American Academy of Advertising, 1983.

Reichert, Tom and Susan E. Morgan. "Men are Taking it Off! A Visual Analysis of Male Portrayal in Magazine Advertising." Visual Communication 9, Flagstaff AZ, June 1995.

Rossiter, John R. "Visual Imagery: Applications to Advertising." In Jerry Olson (Ed) Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 9. (Ann Arbor MI: Association for consumer Research, 1982)

Rossiter, John R. and Larry Percy. "Visual Communication in Advertising." In R. J. Harris (Ed.) Information Processing Research in Advertising. (Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum, 1983): 83-125.

Rossiter, John. R. "Attitude Change Through Visual Imagery in Advertising." Journal of Advertising 9 (1980): 10-16.

Sayre, Shay. "Images of Freedom and Equality: A Values Analysis of Hungarian Political commercials." Journal of Advertising. 23 (March 1994): 97-109.

Smith, Ruth Ann "What You See is Not Necessarily What You Get: The Effects of Visual and Verbal Advertising Information on Consumers' Inferences." In John F. Sherry, Jr. and Brian Sternthal (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 19 (1992): 296-298.

Smith, Ruth Ann. "The Effects of Visual and Verbal Advertising Information on Consumers' Inferences." Journal of Advertising. 20:4 (December, 1991): 13-23.

Unnava, H. Rao and Robert Burnkrant. "An Imagery-Processing View of the Role of Pictures in Print Advertisements." Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (May, 1991): 226-231.

Warlaumont, Hazel G. "Advertising Images: From Persuasion to Polysemy." Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising. 17:1 (1995).

Young, Charles E. and Michael Robinson. "Visual Connectedness and Persuasion." Journal of Advertising Research. (March/April 1992): 51-59.

X E. Architecture/Planning

Cleaver, Betty P., Pamela Scheurer, Mary E. Shorey. "Architectural Images Through the Dual Lens of Picture Books and Creative Dramatics." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy . (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Eisenman, Peter. "Architecture and the Problem of the Rhetorical Figure." A + U 20:2 (July 1987): 17-22.

Goldberger, Paul. "Houses as Art." The New York Times Magazine. (March 12, 1995).

Hewitt, Mark A. "Representational Forms and Modes of Conception: An Approach to the History of Architectural Drawing." Journal of Architectural Education. 39 (Winter, 1985/86): 2-9.

Scruton, Roger. The Aesthetics of Architecture. (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979).

Stange, Maren. "Jacob Riis and Urban Visual Culture: The Lantern Slide Exhibition as Entertainment and Ideology." Journal of Urban History. 15 (May, 1989): 274-303.

Tractenberg, Alan. "Image and Ideology: New York in the Photographer's Eye." Journal of Urban History, 10 (August 1984): 453-464

Weihsmann, H. "Avant-garde Film Design vs. Modern Architecture: Parallel and Contradictions." Journal of Visual Literacy." 9:1 (1989) 26-46.

Woods, John D. and Edward H. Sewell, Jr. "Environmental Linguistics: A Typology of Visual Factors in Shopping Malls." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art , Science and Visual Literacy . I (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

X F. Archaeology

Anati, Emmanuel. "Saving the World's Rock Art." Archaeology, March/April 1983: 24-30.

Clotes, Jean and Jean Courtin, "Stone Age Gallery by the Sea." Archaeology, May/June 1993: 38-43.

Coe, Michael. Breaking the Maya Code. NY: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Donnan, Christopher. "Ancient Murals From Chrnancap, Peru." Archaeology, May/June 1984: 32-37.

Fairservis, W. "Cave Paintings of the Great Hunters." (New York: Profile, 1955).

Harington, Spencer P.M. "Stone Age Masterpieces Found." Archaeology, March/April 1995: 12-13.

Kaplan, Maureen F. and Mel Adams. "Using the Past to Protect the Future: Marking Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites." Archaeology (September/October, 1986: 51-54.

Lipton, Barbara. "Artic Vision: Art of the Canadian Inuit." Archaeology, January/February 1985: 54-57

Marschack, Alexander. "Images of the Ice Age." Archaeology, July/August 1995: 28-39.

Thybony, Scott. "Rock Art." Native Peoples (Fall/Winter 1995): 34-40.

Watterson, Barbara and Kathleen M. Picavance. "The Photographs of Frith (1822-1898): A Journey to the Past Through Archaeological Photography, Archaeology, November/December 1984: 48-53.

Winter, Irene J. "Royal Rhetoric and the Development of Historical Narrative in Neo-Assyrian Reliefs." Studies in Visual Communication. 7:2 (Spring, 1981): 2 -38.

XI. History

Alland, Alexander. Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen. Millerton, NY: Aperture, 1974).

Alland, Alexander. Jessie Tarbox Beals: First Woman News Photographer. (New York: Camera Graphic Press, 1978).

Arlen, Michael J. Living-Room War. (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1982).

Auer, Michel. The Illustrated History of the Camera: From 1839 to the Present. Trans. by D. B. Tuggs. (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975).

Barker, David. "The Emergence of Television's Repertoire of Representation. 1920-1935." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. 35:3 (Summer, 1991): 305-318.

Barnhurst, Kevin G. and John C. Nerone. "Design Trends in U.S. Front Pages, 1885-1985." Journalism Quarterly. 68 (Winter 1991): 796-804.

Baxandall, Michael. Patterns of Intention: On the historical Explanation of Pictures. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).

Becker, Karin. "Photojournalism and the Tabloid Press." In Peter Dahlgren and Colin Sparks (Eds). Journalism and Popular Culture. (London: Sage, 1992): 130-153.

Becker, Karin E. "Forming a Profession: Ethical Implications of Photojournalistic Practice on German Picture Magazines, 1926-1933." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:2 (1985): 44-60.

Beaton, Cecil and Gail Buckland. The Magic Image: The Genius of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day. (Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1975).

Bisbee, A. The History and Practice of Daguerreotyping. 1853. Reprinted (New York: Arno Press, 1973).

Blackman, Margaret B. "Visual Ethnohistory: Photographs in the Study of Culture History." In Dennis Weidman, Gerry Williams and Mario Zamora (Eds.) Studies in Third World Societies Publication 35. (Williamsburg, VA: William and Mary College, 1986).

Borchert, James. "Analysis of Historical Photographs: A Method and a Case Study." Studies in Visual Communication. 7:4 (Fall, 1981): 30-63.

Bossen, Howard. "A Tall Tale Retold: The Influence of the Photographs of William Henry Jackson on the Passage of the Yellowstone Park Act of 1872." Studies in Visual Communication 8 (Winter, 1982): 98-109.

Brewster, Sir David. The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction. (London: John Murray, 1856).

Buchloh, B. H. D. and R. Wilkie (Eds). Mining Photographs and Other Pictures 1948-1968. (Cape Breton: Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 1983).

Buckland, Gail. Reality Recorded: Early Documentary Photography. (Greenwich: New York Graphic Society, 1974).

Buckland, Gail. Fox Talbot and the Invention of Photography. (Boston: David R. Godine, 1980).

Bunnell, Peter (Ed.). A Photographic Vision: Pictorial Photography, 1889-1923. (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1980).

Caffin, Charles H. Photography as a Fine Art: The Achievement and Possibilities of Photographic Art in America. 1901. Reprinted (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1971).

Carlebach, Michael. The Origins of Photojournalism in America. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1992).

Carnes, Cecil. Jimmy Hare, News Photographer. (New York: MacMillan, 1940).

Coe, Brian and Paul Gates. The Snapshot Photograph: The Rise of Popular Photography, 1888-1939. (London: Asch and Grant, Ltd., 1977).

Collins, Kathleen. (Ed.) Shadow and Substance: Essays on the History of Photography (Troy, MI: Amorphous Institute Press, 1990).

Coke, Van Deren, Ute Eskildsen, and Bernd Lohse, (Eds.). Avant-garde Photography in Germany, 1919-1930. (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1960).

Coke, Van Deren (Ed.) One Hundred Years of Photographic History: Essays in Honor of Beaumont Newhall. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1975).

Craig, James and Bruce Barton. Thirty Centuries of Graphic Design: An Illustrated Survey. (New York: Watson-Guptill, 1987).

Crawford, William. The Keepers of Light: A History & Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan, 1979).

Darrah, William Culp. Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth-Century Photography. (Gettysburg: Wm.C. Darrah, 1981).

Darrah, William Culp. Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and a Guide to Their Collection. (Gettysburg: Times and News Publishing Co., 1964).

Darrah, William Culp. The World of Stereographs. (Gettysburg,: Wm. C. Darrah, 1977).

Davison, J. Robert. "Turning a Blind Eye: The Historian's Use of Photographs." BC Studies. 52 (Winter 1981-82): 16-38.

Denzer, Kiko. "The Documentary Imagination of Lewis Hine." History Today (1988): 49-55.

Doty, Robert. Photo-Secession: Stieglitz and the Fine Art Movement in Photography. (New York: Dover Publications, 1978).

Durham, Michael S. Powerful Days: The civil Rights Photography of Charles Moore (New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1991).

Earle, Edward W. (Ed). Points of View: The Stereograph in America--A Cultural History. (Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop, 1970).

Eder, Josef Maria. History of Photography. Trans. Edward Epsteam. (New York: Dover Publications, 1978).

Edom, Clifton C. "Photo-Propaganda: The History of Its Development." Journalism Quarterly (1947): 221-226.

Faber, John. Great News Photos and the Stories Behind Them. 2nd ed. (New York: Dover Publications, 1978).

Fabian, Rainer and Hans C. Adam. Images of War: 130 Years of War Photography (Great Britain: New English Library, 1983).

Fouque, Victor. The Truth Concerning the Invention of Photography: Nicephore Niepce: His Life and Works. Trans. Edward Epstean. (New York: Tennant and Ward, 1935).

Fulton, Marianne (Ed.). Eyes of Time: Photojournalism in America. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1988).

Gambee, Budd Leslie, Jr. Frank Leslie and His Illustrated Newspaper, 1855-1860. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Department of Library Science, 1964).

Gardner, Alexander. Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War. 2 vols. 1866. Reprint (New York: Dover Publications, 1959).

Gassan, Arnold. A Chronology of Photography: A Critical Survey of the History of Photography as a Medium of Art. (Athens: Handbook Co., 1972).

Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison Gernsheim. The History of Photography from the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of The Modern Era. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969).

Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison Gernsheim. A Concise History of Photography. (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1965).

Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison Gernsheim. L.J.M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype. (London: Secker and Warburg, 1956).

Gernsheim, Helmut. The Origins of Photography. (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1982).

Gidal, Tim N. Modern Photojournalism: Origins and Evolution 1910-1933. (New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1973).

Gilbert, George. Photography: The Early Years. (New York: Harper & Row, 1980).

Gould, Lewis, L. and Richard Greffe. Photojournalist: The Career of Jimmy Hare. (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1977).

Gover, C. Jane. The Positive Image: Women Photographers in Turn of the Century America (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1988).

Green, Jonathan. A Critical History of American Photography. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984).

Greenough, Sarah, Joel Snyder, David Travis, and Colin Westerbeck. On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography. (Boston: Bulfinch Press, 1989).

Harker, Margaret. The Linked Ring: The Secession Movement in Photography in Britain, 1892-1910. (London: Heineman, 1979).

Hardt, Hanno and Karin B. Ohrn. "The Eyes of the Proletariat: The Worker-Photography Movement in Weimar Germany." Studies in Visual Communication. 7:4 (Fall, 1981): 72-83.

Hassner, Rune. "Photography and the Press." In Jean-Claude Legagny and Andre Rouille (Eds.) A History of Photography: Social and Cultural Perspectives. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

Haworth-Booth, Mark, (Ed.). The Golden Age of British Photography, 1839-1900. (Millerton, NY: Aperture, 1984).

Hightower, Paul. "A Study of the Messages in Depression-Era Photos." Journalism Quarterly 57 (Autumn 1980): 495-497.

Holland, Patricia and Jo Spence and Simon Watney. Photography/Politics: Two. (London: Comedia, 1986).

Horan, James D. Mathew Brady, Historian with a Camera. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1955).

Horan, James D. Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer. (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1966).

Horgan, Stephen H. Horgan's Half-Tone and Photomechanical Processes. (Chicago: Inland Printer Co., 1913).

Jareckie, Stephen. American Photography, 1840-1900. (Worcester, MA.: Worcester Art Museum, 1976).

Jeffrey, Ian. Photography: A Concise History. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1981).

Jenkins, Harold F. Two Points of View: The History of the Parlor Stereoscope. (Elmira, NY: World in color Productions, 1976).

Jenkins, R. V. Images and Enterprise: Technology and the American Photographic Industry, 1839-1925. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1975).

Jussim, Estelle. Visual Communication and the Graphic Arts.: Photographic Technologies in the 19th Century. (New York: Bowker, 1983).

Kahan, Robert S. "Magazine Photography Begins: An Editorial Negative." Journalism Quarterly. (1965): 53-59.

Kahan, Robert S. "America in a Visual Century." Journalism Quarterly. 69:2 (Summer 1992): 262-265.

Katz, D. Mark. Witness to an Era: The Life and Photographs of Alexander Gardner. (New York: Viking, 1991).

Kenny, James and Isabel Enriquez Kenny. "Researching the Historical Film." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Kenney, Keith and Brent Unger. "The Mid-Week Pictorial: Forerunner of American News-Picture Magazines." American Journalism. 11:3 (Summer 1994): 242-256.

Leekley, Sheryle and John Leekley. Moments: The Pulitzer Prize Photographs Updated 1942-1982 (New York: Crown, 1982).

Lesy, Michael. Bearing Witness: a Photographic Chronicle of American Life, 1860-1945. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982).

Lesy, Michael. Wisconsin Death Trip. (New York: Pantheon, 1973).

Lesy, Michael. Real Time. (New York: Pantheon, 1976).

Lesy, Michael. Time Frames. (New York: Pantheon, 1980).

Lewinski, Jorge. The Camera at War: A History of War Photography from 1848 to the Present Day. (London: W.H. Allen, 1978).

Lewis, Charles. "An Analysis of Clarence White's Photograph, 'The Ring Toss.' In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.) Art, Science and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1993).

Longo, Donna. "Towards Understanding Historical Photographs: Essays in Honor of George L. Harris." Occasional Papers 2. (Washington, D.C.: American University, Anthropology Dept., 1987).

McGowan, William. "Eugene Richards: Social Realist." Columbia Journalism Review. (January/February 1995): 43-45.

Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983).

Mellor, David (Ed). Germany: The New Photography, 1927-33. (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978).

Metzler, Milton. Dorthea Lange: A Photographer's Life. (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978).

Mich, Daniel D. "The Rise of Photo-Journalism in the United States." Journalism Quarterly (1947): 202-206.

Miller, Francis Trevelyan. The Photographic History of the Civil War. 10 vols. (New York: Review of Reviews Co., 1911).

Mueller-Brockmann, Josef. A History of Visual Communication. (New York: Hastings House/Visual Communication Books, 1971).

Naef, Weston J. and James N. Wood. Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860-1885. (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1975).

Newhall, Beaumont. The Daguerreotype in America., 3rd ed. New York: Dover, 1976).

Newhall, Beaumont. The History of Photography from 1839 to the Present, rev. ed. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1982).

Newhall, Beaumont. Latent Image: The Discovery of Photography. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983).

Norback, Craig T. and Melvin Gray, (Eds). The World's Great News Photos, 1840-1980. (New York: Crown Publishers, 1980).

Ohrn, Karin Becker. "What You See is What You Get: Dorothea Lange and Ansel Adams at Manzanar." Journalism History. 4:1 (Spring, 1977): 14-22, 23.

Orvell, Miles. "Almost Nature: The Typology of Late Nineteenth Century American Photography." Views: The Journal of Photography In New England 8 (1986): 57-58.

Partridge, Elizabeth (Ed.) Dorothea Lange: A Visual Life. (Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994).

Pastore, N. Selective History of Theories of Visual Perception: 1650-1950. (NY: Oxford University Press, 1971).

Perlmutter, David D. "Visual Historical Methods." Historical Methods. 27:4 (Fall 1994): 167-184.

Pfister, Harold Francis. Facing the Light: Historic American Portrait Daguerreotypes. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978).

Phillips, Christopher. Photography in the Modern Era: European Documents and Critical Writings, 1913-1940. (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art/Aperture, 1989).

Pollack, Peter. The Picture History of Photography. (New York: Abrams, 1969).

Potonniee, Gerrges. History of the Discovery of Photography. 1936. Reprint (New York: Arno Press, 1973).

Rinhart, Floyd and Marion Rinhart. The American Daguerreotype. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1981).

Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984).

Rosenblum, Naomi. A History of Women Photographers (New York: Abbeville Press, 1994).

Rudisill, Richard. Mirror Image: The Influence of the Daguerreotype on American Society. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971).

Schiller, Dan. "Realism, Photography and Journalistic Objectivity in 19th Century America." Studies in Visual Communication. 4:2 (Winter, 1977): 86-98.

Schlereth, Thomas J. "Mirrors of the Past: Historical Photography and American History." In Artifacts and the American Past. (Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1980): 11-47.

Schultz, John and Barbara Schultz. Picture Research: A Practical Guide. (New York: Van Nostrand, 1991).

Schuneman, R. Smith. "Art or Photography: A Question for Newspaper Editors of the 1890s." Journalism Quarterly. (1965): 43-52.

Schwarz, Heinrich. Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Seels, Jody M. and Barbara Seels. "Civil War Photography and Its Impact From 1863-1993. In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual LIteracy Association, 1994).

Shambaugh, R. Neal. "Timeless Images: Past and Present." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg VA: International Visual Literacy Assocation, 1995).

Smith, C. Zoe. "Dickey Chappelle: Pioneer in Combat." Visual Communication Quarterly, 1 (Spring 1994): 4-8.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Black Star Picture Agency: Life's European Connection." Journalism History. 13 (Spring 1986): 19-25.

Smith, C. Zoe. "An Alternative View of the Thirties: Hine and Bourke-White's Industrial Photographs." Journalism Quarterly. 60:2 (Summer 1983): 305-310.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Germany's Kurt Korff: An Emigre's Secret Influence on American Life." Journalism Quarterly 65:2 (Spring, 1988): 412-419.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Fritz Goro: Emigre Photojournalist." American Journalism 3:4 (December, 1986): 206-221.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Wisconsin Death Trip as Case Study on the Questionable Uses of 19th Century Photographs in Historical Research." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, 1993.

Stott, William. Documentary Expression and Thirties America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973).

Szazs, L.D. and Ralph F. Bogardus. "The Camera and the American Social Conscience. The New Haven Palladium (July 20, 1891): 409-436.

Taft, Robert. Photography and the American Scene: A Social History, 1839-1889. (New York: Dover Publications, 1964).

Thompson, W. Fletcher, Jr. The Image of War: The Pictorial Reporting of the American Civil War. (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1960).

Tilden, Freeman. Following the Frontier with F. Jay Haynes, Pioneer Photographer of the Old West. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964).

Trachtenberg, Alan. "Lewis Hine: The World of His Art." In Vicki Goldberg (Ed.) Photography in Print: Writings from 1816 to the Present (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981).

Weaver, Mike (Ed.). The Art of Photography 1839-1989. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).

Weihsmann, Helmut. "Third Man's Vienna: A Visual History Document or the Evaluation of Film as Historic Evidence." Journal of Visual Literacy. 13:2 (Autumn, 1993): 73-88.

Weinstein, Robert A. and Larry Booth. Collection, Use and Care of Historical Photographs. (Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1977).

Welling, William. Photography in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900. (New York: Tomas Y. Crowell Co, 1978).

Williams, M. Griffith: First Artist of the Movies. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).

Winfield, Betty H. "FDR's Pictorial Image, Rules and Boundaries." Journalism History (Winter, 1978-79): 110-114.

Witte, Mary Stieglitz. "Photography/Digital Imaging: Parallel & Paradoxical Histories." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1995).

Wolf, Daniel (Ed.). The American Space: Meaning in Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photography. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983).

Yochelson, Bonnie. "Clarence H. White Reconsidered: An Alternative to the Modernist Aesthetic of Straight Photography." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:4 (Fall, 1983): 24-44.

XII. Research/Methodology

Barker, David and Bernard M. Timberg, "Encounters With the Television Image: Thirty Years of Encoding Research." Communication Yearbook. 15 (1992): 209-238.

Brody, P. J. "In Search of Instructional Utility: A Function-based Approach to Pictorial Research. Instructional Science. 13 (1984): 47-61.

Burke, K. and A. A. Leps. "Multi-Image Research: A Thirty Year Retrospective." International Journal of Instructional Media. 16 (3): 181-195.

Cochran, Lida M., P. C. Younghouse, J. W. Sorflaten, and R. A. Molek. "Exploring Approaches to Researching Visual Literacy." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28 (1980): 243-266.

Crow, Wendell. "From Nominal to Quantitative Codifcation of Content-Neutral Variables in Graphics Research: The Beginnings of a Manifest Content Model." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Boston, 1980.

David, Prabu. "Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Graphics in the Mass Media: A Theoretical Framework for Research." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Boston, 1991.

Duchastel, P.C. "Research on Illustrations in Text: Issues and Perspectives." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 28 (4): 283-287.

Dwyer, F. M. and R. J. Lamberski. "A Review of the Research on the Effects of the Use of Color in the Teaching-learning Process. International Journal of Instructional Media. 10 (1982/83): 303-328.

Fleming, M. L. "On Pictures in Educational Research." Instructional Science. 8 (1979): 235-251.

Fletcher, J. E. "Empirical Studies of Visual Communication: Some Methodological Considerations." Speech Communication Association, Minneapolis, MN, 1978.

Golden, Linda and Mayur Sirdesai. "Chernoff Faces: A Useful Technique for Comparative Image Analysis and Representation." Advances in Consumer Research. 19 (1992): 123-128.

Griffin, Michael. "Looking at TV News: Strategies for Research." Conference on Culture and Education, Philadelphia, 1986.

Intons-Peterson, M. J. "Imagery Paradigms: How Vulnerable are They to Experimenters' Expectations?" Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 9 (1983): 394-412.

Levie, W. H. "A Prospectus for Instructional Research on Visual Literacy." Educational Communications and Technology Journal. 26:1 (1978): 25-36.

Levie, W. H. and R. Lentz. "Effects of Text Illustrations: A Review of Research." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30 (1982): 195-232.

Levie, W. H. and D. Levie. "Pictorial Memory Processes." AV Communication Review. 23:1 (1975).

Linton, James. "Problems in the Content Analysis of Feature films." International Communication Association Conference, Philadelphia PA, 1979.

Moore, D.W. and J.E. Readance. "A Quantitative and Qualitative Review of Graphic Organizer Research." Journal of Educational Research. 78:1 (1984): 11-17.

Pettersson, Rune. "Describing Picture Content." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Visual Communication, (Blacksburg, VA. Internaional Visual Literacy Association, 1991): 153-160.

Pettersson, Rune. "How Do We Measure Illustrations?" Visual Literacy Review. 19:3 (May, 1990): 5-6.

Pettersson, Rune. "The Picture Area Index." Visual Literacy Review. 21:2 (April, 1992): 3-4.

Shoemaker, Pamela. "Ten Ideas for Theoretically Driven Research in Visual Communication." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Annual Conference, Montreal, August, 1992.

Szabo, M., F. M. Dwyer, and H. DeMelo. "Visual Testing: Visual Literacy's Second Dimension." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 29 (1981): 177-187.

Tiemens, R.K. "Analyzing the Content of Visual Messages: Methodological Considerations. In N. Metallinos (Ed.) Verbo-Visual Literacy. 1993 International IVLA Symposium, Delphi Greece, 1994.

White, Sylvia E. "The Effect of Form Complexity of Television on the Identification/Recognition Process." International Communication Association Annual Conference. Dallas, 1983.

XII A. Bibliographies

Clemente, R. and R. M. Bohlin. Visual Literacy: A Selected bibliography. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1990).

Levie, W. Howard. "Research and Theory on Pictures and Imaginal Processes: A Taxonomy and Selected Bibliography." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging, Fall, 1984: 7-41.

Levie, W. H. "Research on Pictures: A Guide to the Literature." In D.M. Willows and H. A. Houghton (Eds.). The Psychology of Illustration. Volume 1: Basic Research. (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987).

Oudejans, Martin. "A Bibliography of Visual Literacy: Part One." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 7:1 (1987): 72-99.

Walker, Alice D. "Examining Visual Literacy, 1983-1989: A Seven-Year IVLA Bibliography." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Walker, Alice D. " Index to Papers Appearing in The Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging and the Journal of Visual Literacy 1981-1990. Journal of Visual Literacy. 12:2 (Autumn 1991): 88-95.

Walker, Alice D. "IVLA Readings Bibliography--1990-1993." In D. G. Beauchamp, R.A. Braden, and J.C. Baca, Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. (Blacksburg, VA: International Visual Literacy Association, 1994).