ANTHROPOLOGY 4380/5380
Fall 1998
Hale 256, 12:30-1:45pm  T Th
Payson Sheets
LITHIC ANALYSIS AND REPLICATION
Office:  Hale 160.
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WEEK  DATE         TOPIC                    READING ASSIGNMENTS
1.  25, 27 Aug         Introduction: Attributes, Terminology, Concepts Crabtree 1982:1-57, W p1-9
 
2.  1, 3 Sep   Physics and Mechanics of Fracture.   W p11-21,  Cotterell & Kamminga chap.
 
                3.  8, 10 Sep      Quarries & Workshops.  Coe & Flannery '64, Sheets '75AAq, Michels '75, Singer &        Ericson'77
4.  15, 17 Sep      So What’s the Point? -Lithic Analyses & Classif.   Sheets '75CA,  W Ch 11
5.  22, 24 Sep     Mesoamerican Lithic Analyses.  Sheets '77,  Johnson 1996
6.   29 Sep, 1 Oct      Use-Wear and Function, History    Bamforth, Ahler, Loy.
           Doug Bamforth lecture on Tuesday 29th.  Crabtree videos Thurs.
    7.  6, 8 Oct      Ancillary Topics Groundstone, fractured: bone, and ethnoarcheology Torrence, Ch.       3, Adams 1988
 
         MIDTERM EXAM: Thurs 8 Oct - 100 points
8.  13, 15 Oct        Production and Specialization, Exchange  Costin 1991. (Bradley video Thurs)
9.  20, 22 Oct        Thermal Alteration   Rick & Chappell, Dunnell et al. 1994
 
10.  27, 29 Oct       Analyses: total, sampling and bulk; micro & macro,       Healan ‘95, (Metcalf &          Heath ‘90 optional), Schott ‘94
11.  3, 5 Nov         Technical Analysis: Hydration, Sourcing Illustration Friedman, Trembour &       Hughes 1997, Stross, et al. ‘83, Shackley 1998
12.  10, 12 Nov        Replication: Introduction & Materials (Crabtree 1982:1-57), W Ch 3-5
13.  17, 19 Nov     Replication: Percussion Flaking  W Ch 6
14.   24, 26 Nov       Replication: Percussion and Pressure Flaking  W Ch 7,8
15.  1, 3 Dec    Replication: Percussion & Pressure     W Ch 9, 10
16.  8 Dec.     Review for Final Exam      none
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
               No makeup exams; you must be present and take both exams.
   FINAL EXAM:  Monday 14 December, 3:30 - 6:30 p.m. - same room;
                           200 points.  Exam is comprehensive.
TERM PAPERS: Due Tues 8 Dec, 10% deducted per day late.  The anthropological system of parenthetical referencing is to be used.  Papers may be in the formats of research proposals, research results, description and interpretation of your experimental project, critical literature reviews, or similar approaches.  An abstract is required.  12 point font.
Undergraduate 4380 papers should be 5-7 pages of typed, double-spaced text (not including illustrations), value - 100 points.
Graduate 5380 papers should be double that length, and more theoretically or experimentally oriented, value - 200 points.
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                        REQUIRED READINGS:
Whittaker, John C.
   1994   Flintknapping: Making and Understanding Stone Tools.
  Austin: Univ of Texas Press. Text, @ Bookstore
Crabtree, Don E.
   1982   An Introduction to Flintworking.  Occasional Papers,
          Idaho State University Museum, #28. (Copy in Grad Lounge,   ditto for all required readings below:)
Shackley, M. Steven  1998  “Current Issues and Future Directions in  Archaeological Volcanic Glass Studies”  in Schackley Ed.  Archaeological Obsidian studies: Method and Theory.  Plenum  Press, NY.  (Chp. 1)
Johnson, Jay
   1996 “Lithic Analysis and Questions of Cultural Complexity”    In Odell ed. Stone Tools: Theoretical Insights into Human   Prehistory.  NY: Plenum.  pp.159-180.
Healan, Dan
   1995 Identifying lithic reduction loci with size-graded    macrodebitage: A multivariate approach.  American    Antiquity 60:4: 689-700.
Torrence, Robin
   1986   Chapter 3 “Designing an instrument for measuring change”    in Production and Exchange of Stone Tools.  Cambridge:
          Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 38-92.
Bamforth, Douglas
   1988   Investigating Microwear Polishes with Blind Tests: The   Institute Results in Context.  Journal of      Archaeological Science, 15:11-23.
Dunnell, R. C. et al.
   1994  Heat Treatment of Mill Creek and Dover Cherts on the    Malden Plain, Southeast Missouri.  Journal of     Archaeological Science 21:1: 79-90.
Newman, Jay
   1994 The effects of distance on lithic material reduction    technology.  Journal of Field Archaeology 21:4:491-501.
Andrefsky, Wm.
   1994 Raw material availability and the organization of    technology.  American Antiquity 59:1:21-35.
Schott, Michael
   1994 Size and form in the analysis of flake debris: Review and   recent approaches.  Journal of Archaeological Method and   Theory  1:1:69-110.
Adams, J.
   1988   Use-wear Analyses on Manos and Hide-processing Stones.    Journal of Field Archaeology 15:307-315.
Loy, Thomas
   1982   "Prehistoric Blood Residues." Science 220:1269-71.
Coe, Michael, and Kent Flannery
   1964   The Precolumbian Obsidian Industry of El Chayal,     Guatemala.  American Antiquity 30:43-49.
Sheets, P.
   1975   A Reassessment of the Precolumbian Obsidian Industry of   El Chayal, Guatemala.  American Antiquity 40:98-103.
Michaels, Joseph
   1975  El Chayal Guatemala: A Chronological and Behavioral    Reassessment.  American Antiquity 40: 103-106.
Sheets, P.
   1975   Behavioral Analysis and the Structure of a Prehistoric
          Industry.  Current Anthropology 16:369-91.
   1977   The Analysis of Chipped Stone Artifacts in Southern
          Mesoamerica:  An Assessment.  Latin American Research
          Review, 12:139-58.
Ahler, S.
   1979   "Functional Analysis of Nonobsidian Chipped Stone
          Artifacts:  Terms, Variables, and Quantification."  In
          Hayden (ed.) Lithic Use-Wear Analysis.  NY:  Academic
          Press.
Cotterell, B. and J. Kamminga
   1979   "The Mechanics of Flaking."  In Hayden (ed.) Lithic
          Use-Wear Analysis.  NY:  Academic Press.
Costin, Cathy
   1991 Craft specialization: Issues in defining, documenting,   and explaining the organization of production. Method and   Theory in Archaeology, Ed. by Michael Schiffer.  Vol. 3.    Tucson: Univ of AZ Press, p. 1-56.
Rick, J. and S. Chappell
   1983   Thermal Alteration of Silica Materials in Technological
          and Functional Perspective.  Lithic Technology 12:69-
          80.
Singer, Clay and Jonathon Ericson
    1977  Quarry Analysis at Bodie Hills, Mono County, CA: A Case   Study.   In Exchange Systems in Prehistory, Ed. by T.    Early & J. Ericson.  NY: Academic Press. pp. 171-188.
Stross, F., P. Sheets, F. Asaro, and H. Michel
   1983   Precise Characterization of Guatemalan Obsidian
          Sources, and Source Determination of Artifacts from
          Quirigua.  American Antiquity 48:323-46.
Friedman, Irving, Fred Trembour, and Richard Hughes 1997  “Obsidian  Hydration Dating”  In Taylor & Aitken Eds.  Chronometric  Dating in Archaeology, Plenum Press, NY.
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RECOMMENDED READINGS:
Hester, T. and R. Heizer
   1973   Bibliography of Archaeology I:  Experiments, Lithic
          Technology and Petrography.  Reading (MA):  Addison-
          Wesley Module #29.
Henry, Don & George Odell (Eds.)
 1989 Alternative Approaches to Lithic Analysis.  Archeol    Papers of the Amer Anthro Assn #1.
Metcalfe, Duncan, and Kathleen Heath
   1990 Microrefuse and site structure: The hearths and floors of   the Heartbreak Hotel.  American Antiquity 55:4:781-96.
Krim, Jacqueline
   1996   Friction at the Atomic Scale.  Scientific American     October 1996, p. 74-80.
Hester, Tom
   1980   The 1980 Season at Colha, Belize, an Overview.  MS, Univ   of Texas, San Antonio.
Odell, George (Ed.)
 1996 Stone Tools: Theoretical Insights into Human Prehistory.    NY: Plenum.
Trembour, F. and I. Friedman
   1984   The Present Status of Obsidian Hydration Dating.      Quaternary Dating Methods, Ed. by W. Mahaney.*
 
       GENERAL REFERENCES FOR ANTHROPOLOGY 4380/5380
WEEK 1:  INTRODUCTION, THEORETICAL
Bamforth, D.
   1988   Ecology and Human Organization on the Great Plains.      Plenum Press, New York.
Bamforth, D.
   1991 Technological Organization and Hunter-Gatherer Land Use:    A California Example.  AAq 56:216-35.
Bordaz, J.
   1970   Tools of the Old and New Stone Age.  Natural History
          Press, Garden City.
Bordes, F.
   1968   The Old Stone Age.  McGraw-Hill, N.Y.
Gould, R. and S. Saggers
   1985   Lithic Procurement in Central Australia:  A Closer Look
          at Binford's Idea of Embeddedness in Archeology.  A.
          AQ. 50:117-36.
Hester, T. R. and R. F. Heizer
   1973   Bibliography of Archaeology I:  Experiments, Lithic
          Technology and Petrography.  Addison Wesley Module in
          Anthropology, #29.
Honea, K.
   1983   Lithic Technology:  An International Annotated
          Bibliography.  LT Special Pub. #2.  U. T., San Antonio.
Lustig-Arecco, Vera
   1975   Technology:  Strategies for Survival.  Holt, Rinehart
          and Winston, N.Y.
Oakley, K. P.
   1964   Man the Tool-Maker.  University of Chicago Press.
Odell, George (Ed)
   1996 Stone Tools: Theoretical Insights into Human Prehistory.   NY:Plenum
Plew, M., J. Woods, and M. Pavesic (eds.)
   1985   Stone Tool Analysis:  Essays in Honor of Don E.
          Crabtree.  Albuquerque:  Univ. of N. M. Press.
Seeman, Mark
   1994  Intercluster lithic patterning at Nobles Pond: a case for   disembedded procurement among early Paleoindian     societies.  Amer Antiq 59:273 ff.
Shott, M.
   1989 On Tool-Class use Lives and the Formation of      Archaeological Assemblages.  AAq 54:9-30.
Spier, R. F. G.
   1970   From the Hand of Man:  Primitive and Preindustrial
          Technologies.  Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Torrence, R. (Ed.)
   1989 Time, Energy and Stone Tools.  Cambridge Univ Press,     Cambridge.
Watson, W.
   1968   Flint Implements.  British Museum, London.
 
 
Wright, R. (ed.)
1977 Stone Tools as Cultural Markers.  Canberra; Humanities Press (NJ).
WEEK 1 (Ct’d):  ATTRIBUTES, TERMINOLOGY, CONCEPTS
Binford, L. R.
   1963   A Proposed Attribute List for the Description and
          Classification of Projectile Points.  Anth. Papers,
          Museum of Anth., University of Michigan.  19.  Ann
          Arbor.
Bonnichsen, R. and D. Hoch
   1983   Flake Dispersal Experiments:  Noncultural
          Transformations of the Archeological Record.  A. AQ.
          48:553-73.
Crabtree, D. E.
   1972   An Introduction to Flintworking.  Occasional Papers,
          Idaho State University Museum 28.  Pocatello.
Kamp, K. and J. Whittaker
   1986   Unproductive Lithic Resources at Lake Mead.  A. AQ.
          51:383:8.
Ludke, Barbara
   1992   An Archaeologist's Guide to Chert and Flint.  UCLA Inst   of Archaeology.
Movius, H. L. Jr., et al.
   1968   The Analysis of Certain Major Classes of Upper
          Paleolithic Tools.  Am. Sch. of Prehist. Res., Peabody
          Museum, Harvard University Bull. 26.  Cambridge.
Sullivan, A. and K. Rozen
   1985   Debitage Analysis and Archeological Interpretation.  A.
          AQ. 50:755-79.
Tixier,J.
   1974   Glossary for the Description of Stone Tools.  Special
          Publication #1, Lithic Technology.
WEEK 2:  PHYSICS AND MECHANICS OF FRACTURE
Atkinson, B. (Ed.)
   1987 Fracture Mechanics of Rock.  Academic Press, London.
Barnes, A. S.
   1939   The Differences Between Natural and Human Flaking on
          Prehistoric Flint Implements.  A. Anth. 41:99-112.
Cottrell, A. H.
   1964   The Mechanical Properties of Matter.  John Wiley and
          Sons, New York.
Cotterell, B. and J. Kamminga
   1987   The Formation of Flakes.  AAQ 52:675-708.
Faulkner, A.
   1972   Mechanical Principles of Flintworking.  Unpublished
          Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Anth. Washington St. Univ.
Jaeger, J. C.
   1964   Elasticity, Fracture, and Flow.  Methuen, London.
Kolsky, H.
   1963   Stress Waves in Solids.  Dover, New York.
Speth, J. D.
   1972   Mechanical Basis of Percussion Flaking.  A. AQ. 37:37-
          60.
   1974   Experimental Investigations of Hard-hammer Percussion
          Flaking.  Tebiwa 17:1:7-63
Tsirk, A.
   1974   Mechanical Basis of Percussion Flaking:  Some Comments.
          A. AQ. 39:128-30.
Warrens, S. H.
   1914   The Experimental Investigation of Flint Fracture and
          Its Application to the Problem of Human Implements.
          JRAI 44:412-50.
WEEK 3:  QUARRIES AND WORKSHOPS
See references on p. 2-3.
Stevenson, M.
    1985  The Formation of Artifact Assemblages at Workshop-    Habitation Sites: Models from Peace Point in    Northern Alberta.  AAQ 50:63-81.
Cottrell, M.
    1985  Tomato Springs: The Identification of a Jasper Trade and    Production Center in Southern California.  AAQ 50:833-49.
WEEK 4:  FORMAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSES
Collins, M. B.
   1973   Lithic technology as a means of processual inferences.
          Paper, 9th ICAES, Chicago.  Reprint #0271.
Davis, D. (ed.)
   1978   Lithics and Subsistence.  Vanderbilt Univ., Pubs. in
          Anth. #20.
Flenniken, J. and A. Raymond
   1986   Morphological Projectile Point Typology:  Replication
          Experimentation and Technological Analysis.  A. AQ.
          51:603-14.
Holmes, W. H.
   1894   Natural History of Flaked Stone Implements.  Memoirs of
          the Int. Cong. of Anth., ed. by C. S. Wake, pp. 120-39.
          Chicago.
Muto, G. R.
   1971   A technological analysis of the early stages in the
          manufacture of lithic artifacts.  Unpublished M.A.
          thesis, Idaho St. Univ., Pocatello.
Newsletter of Lithic Technology, 1972-1976 (named changed in
1977).  changed to:
Lithic Technology, 1977-present.
Odell, G.
   1980   Toward a More Behavioral Approach to Archaeological
          Lithic Concentrations.  A. AQ. 45:404-31.
Sackett, J. R.
   1966   Quantitative Analysis of Upper Paleolithic Stone Tools.
          A. Anth. 68:2:2:356-94.
Sheets, P. D.
   1975   Behavioral Analysis and the Structure of a Prehistoric
          Industry.  CA 16:369-91.
Van Noten, F., D. Cahen, and L. Keeley
   1980   A Paleolithic Campsite in Belgium.  Scientific American
          242(4):48-55
Wilmsen, E. N.
   1970   Lithic Analysis and Cultural Inference:  A Paleo-Indian
          Case.  Anth. Papers, Univ. Ariz. #16.  Tucson.
   1968   Lithic Analysis in Paleoanthropology.  Science 161:982-
          8.
WEEK 5:  MESOAMERICAN LITHIC STUDIES
Clark, J.
   1982   Manufacture of Mesoamerican Prismatic Blades:  An
          Alternative Technique.  A. AQ. 47:355-76.
   1986   From Mountains to Molehills: A Critical Review of     Teotihuacan's Obsidian Industry.  In Research in    Economic Anthropology, Ed. by B. Isaac, Supplement 2.    JAI Press, CT.
Dockall, J. and H. Shafer
   1993   Testing the Producer-Consumer Model for Santa Rita    Corozal, Belize.  Latin American Antiquity 4:158-79.
Hester, T. (ed.)
   1976   Maya Lithic Studies.  Report #4, Center. Arch. Res.,
          Univ. of Texas, San Antonio.
   1978   Archaeological Studies of Mesoamerican Obsidian.
          Ballena Press Studies #3 (Socorro, N. M.).
   1991 Maya Stone Tools.  Prehistory Press, Madison WI.
Lewenstein, S.
   1987 Stone Tool Use at Cerros.  Univ of TX Press, Austin.
Shafer, H. and H. Hester
   1983   Ancient Maya Chert Workshops in Northern Belize,
          Central America.  A. AQ. 48:519-543.
Sheets, P.
   1978   The Artifacts.  In Sharer (ed.) The Prehistory of
          Chalchuapa, El Salvador, Vol II.  Philadelphia:  U. of
          Pa. Press.
   1977   The Analysis of Chipped Stone Artifacts in Southern
          Mesoamerica.
Spence, M.
   1981   Obsidian Production and the State in Teotihuacan.  A.
          AQ. 46:769-88.
 
WEEK 6:  FUNCTION/MICROWEAR ANALYSIS
Brose, D. S.
   1975   Functional Analysis of Stone Tools:  A Cautionary Note
          on the Role of Animal Fats.  A. AQ. 40:86-94.
Del Bene, T.
   1979   "Once Upon a Striation:  Current Models of Striation
          and Polish Formation."  In Hayden (ed.) Lithic Use-Wear
          Analysis.  NY:  Academic Press.  *
 
 
Gould, R. A., D. A. Koster, and A. H. L. Sontz
   1971   The Lithic Assemblage of the Western Desert Aborigines
          of Australia.  A. AQ. 36:149-69.
Gould, R. A.
   1973   Use-wear on Western Desert Aborigine Stone Tools:  A
          Reply to Messrs. Hayden and Kamminga.  Newsletter of
          Lithic Technology 2:9-14.
Hayden, B. and J. Kamminga
   1973   Gould, Koster, and Sontz on "Micro-wear":  A Critical
          Review.  Newsletter of Lithic Technology 2:3-8.
Hayden, B. (ed.)
   1979   Lithic Use-wear Analysis.  NY:  Academic Press.
Hester, T. R. and R. F. Heizer
   1971   Problems in Function Interpretation:  Scraper-Planes
          from the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico.  Contrib., U. of CA.
          Arch. Res. Facility, 14:107-23.
   1973   Arrow Points or Knives?  Comments on the Proposed
          Function of "Stockton Points."  A. AQ. 38:220-2.
Hester, T. , D. Gilbow, and A. Albee
   1973   A Functional Analysis of "Clear Fork" Artifacts from
          the Rio Grande Plain, Texas.  A. AQ. 38:90-6.
Hyland, D, J. Tersak, J. Adovasio, and M. Siegel
   1990 Identification of the Species of Origin of Residual Blood   on Lithic Materials.  AAq 55:104-111.
Keeley, L. H.
   1974   Technique and Methodology in Microwear Studies: A
          Critical Review.  WA 5:323-36.
   1974   A Methodology of Micro Analysis: A Comment on Nance.
          A. AQ. 39:126-8.
   1977   The Functions of Paleolithic Flint Tools.  Scientific
          American 237(5):108-126.
   1980   Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses.  U.
          Chicago Press.
   1982   Hafting and Retooling:  Effects on the Archeological
          Record.  A. AQ. 47:798-810.
Keller, C. M.
   1966   The Development of Edge Damage Patterns on Stone Tools.
          Man 1:501-11.
 
Loy, Thomas
   1982   Prehistoric Blood Residues:  Detection on Tool Surfaces
          and Identification of Species of Origin.  Science
          220:1269-71.
Nance, J. D.
   1971   Functional Interpretations from Microscopic Analysis.
          A. AQ. 36:361-6.
Odell, G.
   1975   Micro-wear in Perspective.  WA 7(2):226-240.
Olausson, D.
   1980   Starting from Scratch:  The History of Edge-wear
          Research from 1838 to 1978.  Lithic Technology 9(2):48-
          60.
Semenov, S. A.
   1964   Prehistoric Technology (tr. by M. Thompson).  Cory,
          Adams, and MacKay, London.
Shea, John
   1992   Lithic Microwear analysis in archaeology.  Evolutionary   Anthropology  1:4: 143-150.
Sheets, P. D.
   1973   Edge Abrasion During Biface Manufacture.  A. AQ.
          38:215-8.
Sonnefeld, J.
   1962   Interpreting the Function of Primitive Implements.  A.
          AQ. 28:56-65.
Tringham, R. et al.
   1974   Experimentation in the Formation of Edge Damage:  A New
          Approach to Lithic Analysis.  Journ. of Field Archaeol.
          1:171-96.
Vaughan, P.
   1985   Use-Wear Analysis of Flaked Stone Tools.  Tucson:
          Univ. of Arizona Press.
Walker, P. and J. Long
   1977   An Experimental Study of the Morphological
          Characteristics of Tool Marks.  A. AQ. 42:605-16.
Witthoft, J.
   1965   Glazed Polish on Flint Tools.  A. AQ. 32:383-8.
Yerkes, R.
   1983   Microwear, Microdrills, and Mississippian Craft
          Specialization.  A. AQ. 48:499-519.
 
Young, D. and D. Bamforth
   1990   On the Macroscopic Identification of Used Flakes.  A Aq    55:403-9.
WEEK 7:  ANCILLARY TOPICS:  GROUNDSTONE, FRACTURED BONE,
ETHNOARCHEOLOGY
Adams, Jenny
 1995 The development of prehistoric grinding technology in the   Point of Pines area, AZ.  Museum Anthropology 19:3:17-29.
Bamforth, D.
   1986   Technological Efficiency and Tool Curation.  A. AQ.
          51:38-50.
Bonnichsen, R.
   1973   Millie's Camp:  An Experiment in Archeology.  WA.
   1979   Pleistocene Bone Technology in the Beringian Refugium.
          Nat. Mu. Man, Mercury Series, Paper 89.  Ottawa.
Bonnichsen, R. & M. Sorg Eds.
   1989   Bone Modification.  (conference proceedings)  Center for   Study of First Americans, Oregon St Univ, Corvallis.
Frison, G. and G. Zeimens
   1980   Bone Projectile Points:  An Addition to the Folsom
          Cultural Complex.  A. AQ. 45:231:7.
Hayden, B. and M. Nelson
   1981   The Use of Chipped Lithic Material in the Contemporary
          Maya Highlands.  A. AQ.  46:885-98.
Hayden, B. (Ed.)
   1987 Lithic Studies Among the Contemporary Highland Maya.      Univ of AZ Press, Tucson.
Lyman, R. L.
   1984   Broken Bones, Bone Expediency Tools, and Bone
          Pseudotools:  Lessons from the Blast Zone Around Mt.
          St. Helens, Washington.  A. AQ. 49:315-33.
Stanford, E. et al.
   1981   The Ginsberg Experiment.  Science 212:43-50.
Weissner, P.
   1983   Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile
          Point.  A. AQ. 48:253-77.
White, J. P. and D. H. Thomas
   1972   What Mean These Stones?  IN Models in Archaeology, Ed.
          by D. Clarke.  London:  Methuen.
Zier, A.
   1981   An Experiment in Groundstone Use-wear Analysis.  M.A.
          Thesis, Anthropology, CU-Boulder.
WEEK 8: PRODUCTION AND SPECIALIZATION
Arnold, Jeanne  1987  Craft Specialization in the Prehistoric  Channel Islands, California.  Univ of CA Pubs in Anthropology,  Vol 18, Berkeley, Univ of CA Press.
Brumfiel, E, and T. Earle Eds. 1987  Specialization, Exchange, and  Complex Societies.  Cambridge Univ. Press.
Clark, John, and Wm Parry  1990  “Craft Specialization and Cultural  Complexity”  Research in Economic Anthropology 12: 289-ff.
Santley, Robert  1984  “Obsidian Exchange, Economic Stratification,  and the Evolution of Complex Society in the bAsin of Mexico.   In K Hirth Ed. Trade and Exchange in Early Mesoamerica, p. 43- 86.  Albq: Univ of NM Press.
WEEK 9:  THERMAL ALTERATION
Collins, M. and J. Fenwick
   1974   Heat Treating of Chert:  Methods of Interpretation and
          Their Application.  Plains Anth. 19:134-45.
Crabtree, D. E. and B. R. Butler
   1964   Notes on Experiments in Flint Knapping: 1.  Heat
          Treatment of Silica Minerals.  Tebiwa 7:1-6.
Domenski, M. et al
 1994 Mechanical properties of tone artefact materials and the   effect of heat treatment.  Archaeometry  36:2: 177-208.
Dunnell, R. et al.
   1994   Heat treatment of Mill Creek...cherts in MO.  Journal of   Archaeological Science 21:79-90.
Flenniken, J. and E. Garrison
   1975   Thermally Altered Novaculite and Stone Tool
          Manufacturing Techniques.  JFA 2:125-31.
Hester, T. R.
   1972   Ethnographic Evidence for the Thermal Alteration of
          Siliceous Stone.  Tebiwa 15:63-5.
Hester, T. R. and M. B. Collins
   1974   Evidence for Heat Treating of Southern Texas Projectile
          Points.  Bulletin, Texas Arch. Soc. 45:219-23.
Melcher, C. and D. Zimmerman
   1977   Thermoluminescent Determination of Prehistoric Heat
          Treatment of Chert Artifacts.  Science 197:1359-62.
Paulish, L. and P. Sheppard
   1983   Thermoluminescent Determination of PaleoIndian Heat
          Treatment in Ontario, Canada.  A. AQ. 48:793-800.
Perino, G.
   1971   Some Results of Heat Treating Flint.  The Chesiopiean
          9:99-100.
Purdy, B. A. and H. K. Brooks
   1971   Thermal Alteration of Silica Materials.  An
          Archaeological Approach.  Science 173:322-5.
Rick, J.
   1978   Heat-Altered Cherts of the Lower Illinois Valley.
          Northwestern Arch. Prog., Records, #2.
Sollberger, J. B. and T. R. Hester
   1973   Some Additional Data on the Thermal Alteration of
          Siliceous Stone.  Bulletin, Okla. Anth. Soc. 21:181-5.
WEEK 11:  TECHNICAL ANALYSES:  HYDRATION DATING, SOURCING; ILLUSTRATION
Addington, Lucille
   1986   Lithic Illustration:  Drawing Flaked Stone Artifacts
          for Publication.  Chicago:  U. of Chicago Press.
Friedman, I. and F. Trembour
   1983   Obsidian Hydration Dating Update. A. AQ. 48:544-47.
Meighan, C.
   1983   Obsidian Dating in California:  Theory and Practice.
          A. AQ. 48:600-609.
Moholy-Nagy, H., F. Asaro, and F. Stross
   1984   Tikal Obsidian:  Sources and Typology.  A. AQ. 49:104-
          18.
Sheets, P., K. Hirth, F. Lange, F. Stross, and H. Michel
   1990 Obsidian Sources and Elemental Analyses of Artifacts in   Southern Mesoamerica and the Northern Intermediate Area.    AAq 55:144-158.
Stross, F., P. Sheets, F. Asaro, and H. Michel
   1983   Precise Characterization of Guatemalan Obsidian
          Sources, and Source Determination of Artifacts from
          Quirigua.  A. AQ. 48:323-36.
WEEKS 12-15:  REPLICATION
Bamforth, D.
   1991   Flintknapping Skill, Communal Hunting, and Paleoindian   Projectile Point Typology.  Plains Anthropologist 36:     309-322.
Crabtree, D. E.
   1966   A Stoneworker's Approach to Analyzing and Replicating
          the Lindenmeier Folsom.  Tebiwa 9:39.
   1967   Notes on Experiments in Flint Knapping: 3.  The Flint
          Knapper's Raw Materials.  Tebiwa 10:8-25.
Crabtree, D. E.
   1967   Notes on Experiments in Flint Knapping: 4.  Tools Used
          for Making Flaked Stone Artifacts.  Tebiwa 10:60-73.
   1968   Mesoamerican Polyhedral Cores and Prismatic Blades.  A.
          AQ. 33:446-78.
   1970   Flaking Stone with Wooden Implements.  Science 169:146-
          53.
Ellis, H. H.
   1939   Flintworking Techniques of the American Indians:  An
          Experimental Study.  Ohio Historical Society, Columbus.
Mewhinney, H.
   1957   A Manual for Neanderthals.  Univ. of Texas Press,
          Austin.
Newcomer, M. H.
   1971   Some Quantitative Experiments in Handaxe Manufacture.
          WA 3:85-94.
Pond, A. W.
   1930   Primitive Methods of Working Stone, Based on
          Experiments of Halvor L. Skavlem.  Logan Museum
          Bulletin 2:1.  Beloit College.
Swanson, E. (ed.)
   1975   Lithic Technology:  Making and Using Stone Tools.  The
          Hague:  Mouton.
ABBREVIATIONS USED:
JFA    = Journal of Field Archeology
A. AQ. = American Antiquity
JRAI   = Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
WA     = World Archaeology
CA     = Current Anthropology
A ANTH = American Anthropologist    (whew)