Research

My research interests lie at the intersection of technology and policy. Specifically, I work on developing technical methods of incorporating policy requirements into network systems, and solving public policy problems through the development of new technology. As such, my technology work is motivated by timely problems within the policy space and my policy work is driven by network technology change.

These types of policy-driven technical problems have a highly interdisciplinary nature, and as such present not only new and interesting challenges, but also require the use of quantitative and qualitative techniques that span traditional boundaries between soft and hard science, and often require collaboration with individuals from various disciplines. My collaborative work and interdisciplinary interests have led me to participate in a number of research groups throughout the campus, including the Silicon Flatirons Program, Alliance for Technology Learning and Society (ATLAS) and the Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program (ITP). My collaborations have also led to work with faculty and graduate students outside of the College of Engineering, as well as to establishing research relationships with individuals from other universities, and international collaborations. For example, over the last three years I have been working with Professor Wakamiya from Osaka University in Japan on biologically inspired algorithms (a project sponsored through the National Science Foundation).

In bridging the gap between technology and policy, I have obtained grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Microsoft, Internet2, Internet Society, Cisco and IBM. I have published the resulting work in a variety of high-quality journals and conferences, including SigComm, IEEE Wireless Networking, IEEE Communications, IEEE DySPAN, Internet Measurement Conference, IEEE Network, USENIX Security Symposium, TPRC, MobiSys, ANCS, Journal of Telecommunications Policy, Federal Communications Law Journal, ACM Queue, and others. My interdisciplinary experience has resulted in invitations to participate on national advisory boards (e.g., the Department of Justice National Institute of Justice Communications Technology Working Group, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Technical Advisory Committee, the FCC Network Reliability and Interoperability Council [150]), as well as participation in various institutes and projects (e.g., the Aspen Institute, the Institute for Regulatory Law and Economics, and the Digital Age Communications Act Projects [151, 152]). Most recently I was invited to join the Federal government, first to work on the National Broadband Plan, and later to serve as the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of the FCC, then the CTO of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), Department of Commerce, in the Executive Branch.

My research interests break down into the following three areas: 1) building and assessing wireless systems,[ For example 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 98, 100, 101, 104, 105 and 106.] 2) developing security and signaling systems[ For example 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 25, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 49, 43, 51, 63, 64, 67, 68, 82, 83, 97, 103, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129, 131, 133, 134, 135, 150, 153, 154 and 155.] and 3) developing policy and assurance models.[ For example 16, 79, 80, 81, 84, 86, 87, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 99, 100, 102, 107, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 130, 150, 151 and 151.] While all of these topics are influenced by policy, they are fundamentally technology issues, and therefore require technical solutions, or, at a minimum, a thorough understanding of the technology.

 

Early Research

Before joining CU, my research focused on the performance and design of signaling protocols and architectures. This included work in the areas of active networks and signaling network systems [131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 153, 154]. Part of this research demonstrated the viability of a particular state machine model in application to active network session management. My other early signaling work demonstrated that a number translation technique based on intelligent networking could readily scale to the needs of the public switched network. My more recent signaling research focused on security and safety mechanisms for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [83, 103, 109, 111, 114, 122, 126, 131, 153, 155]. In this research, I proposed new security techniques to implement trait-based access to resources. This led to contributions within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - the standards body for the Internet (see RFC 4484). As part of my Ph.D. research, I examined emerging distributed network signaling protocols [134]. This paper was of interest to the Federal government and led to my invitation to join the FCC. While working in the Federal government, I became increasingly interested in the public policy of emerging network systems - specifically the interplay of network technology and policy. My initial effort in this area was the development of the first layered model for examining various policy issues of modern networks. This investigation began as an internal FCC working paper in 1998, which I later developed into a series of related publications [84, 95, 112, 121, 130, 132, 154]. This model has since received considerable attention, with a number of legal scholars extending my work (see [156]).

Since joining the University of Colorado, my research has focused primarily on wireless networking and network security. In addition to my work in signaling security (as previously described), I worked on encryption for voice and video communications [110, 118, 119, 125]. In this project, my students and I developed cryptographic techniques to minimize the computation required to provide encryption of multimedia data. We also developed federated security mechanisms for VoIP. Over the last 6 years, I have also done a considerable amount of work in the area of privacy and anonymity [2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 43, 51, 67, 68, 114, 120, 126]. Most of this work assessed and improved the operation of anonymous systems or privacy enhancing technology. This work has received considerable attention through academic citations and media attention.

In the area of radio networking, my work focused on: 1) the development of improved handoff techniques for cellular and wireless LANs [15, 62, 93, 101, 105, 106], and 2) the development and evaluation of agile radio networks [59, 60, 61, 65, 70, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 98, 100, 104, 123]. My work in agile radios focused on 1) development of system anomaly detection, 2) reduction of computation required to configure a dynamic radio network, 3) distributing control in cognitive radio networks, 4) cooperative protocols for spectrum sharing, 5) topology algorithms for directional adaptive radio environments, and 6) wormhole routing to radio mesh networks. I have not only been successful in producing impactful research, but have also been able to translate my work into federal and international policies over the last three years while serving in the federal government. Among my more significant successes in this space include 1) introducing sharing to spectrum allocation and assignment [see 157], 2) launching the Broadband Measurement effort [see 158], 3) co-authoring the Open Internet rules [see 159], and 4) initiating the adoption of receiver specifications for radio devices [see 160].

Over the last 10 years, my policy work has focused on: 1) developing an assurance model for VoIP emergency services [92, 107, 113, 116], 2) defining the role that technology plays in the debate over federalism [96, 151, 152], 3) developing a model to study the impact of network security as a mechanism for consumer lock-in [108, 129], and 4) examining network neutrality from a technology perspective [63, 91]. Additionally, I have had great success in promoting the adoption of spectrum sharing models, including work on spectrum reallocation through sharing [157].

I have also been active in the area of education research through the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). I began participating in ASEE with the submission and publication of a paper concerning pedagogical issues for remote laboratories. I also published various papers in the area of engineering policy education, which lead to me become involved with leadership in the ASEE, serving first on the Engineering and Public Policy Division program committee in 2004, then as program chair in 2005, and finally as division chair in 2006 and 2007 [79, 92, 102, 115, 117].

 

Future Research

Over the years, my work has shifted from a broad interdisciplinary examination of networking to a focused research effort addressing the emerging area of frequency agile radio networks and its implication on spectrum management. This area represents a great match for my interdisciplinary research background and is a prime example of the intersection of technology and policy. Should agile radio technology develop to its full potential, communications and radar equipment will be able to dynamically gain access to spectrum in a way not previously possible. This dynamic access to spectrum, together with software driven device reconfiguration, will allow for tremendous gains in available bandwidth, and therefore offer the opportunity to support much more rich capabilities on such wireless devices. Thus, the scarce resource of radio spectrum will be much more efficiently and fully utilized. Of particular interest to computer scientists, this technology opens a host of interesting topology, conformance, enforcement, security, reasoning and architecture issues that have not been a part of the wireless researcher community. These topics have recently been, and will continue to be, my primary research focus.

While working at the FCC and NTIA, I led a number of efforts to restructure agency operations, including 1) implementing data-driven decision making, 2) adopting process transparency and accountability, and 3) reforming radio spectrum management. Most of my efforts focused on spectrum reform, and with my return to the University, I will continue this work by developing new models of spectrum management and methods for encouraging coexistence among radio services. An area of significant interest to me is coexistence with legacy systems, including interoperability and compatibility between federal and non-federal systems. I plan to develop new technical models and policies to address legacy systems and emerging new services. I also plan to explore modern methods of reallocation based on coexistence, cooperation and/or tolerance modeling.

 

References

[1] Dola Saha, Aveek Dutta, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker. Blind Synchronization for NC-OFDMs - When "Channels" Are Conventions, Not Mandates. IEEE Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks 2011 (DySPAN 2011). Aachen, Germany, May 2011. (26% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[2] Christopher B. Schenk and Douglas C. Sicker. Finding Event Specific Influencers in Dynamic Social Networks. SocialCom, 2011. (10% acceptance rate) (4 pages)

[3] Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. The Stability of the Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model for Typical Problems. University of Colorado at Boulder, Tech. Report. CU-CS-1086-11, 2011.

[4] Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Bounding the Practical Error of Path Loss Models in Urban Environments. IEEE Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks 2011 (DySPAN 2011). Aachen, Germany. May 3-6, 2011. (26% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[5] Eric Anderson, Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Signal Quality Pricing: Decomposition for Spectrum Scheduling and System Configuration. IEEE Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks 2011 (DySPAN 2011). Aachen, Germany. May 3-6, 2011. (26% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[6] Caleb Phillips, Scott Raynel, Jamie Curtis, Sam Bartels, Douglas Sicker, Dirk Grunwald and Tony McGregor. The Efficacy of Path Loss Models for Fixed Rural Wireless Links. Passive and Active Measurement Conference 2011 (PAM 2011). Atlanta, Georgia. March 20-22, 2011. (43% acceptance rate) (10 pages)

[7] Eric Anderson, Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Modeling Environmental Effects on Directionality. Mathematical and Computer Modeling Journal. Special Issue on Modeling and Simulation of Wireless Networks. Vol. 53, Issue 11-12, pages 2078-2092, Elsevier. June 2010. (12 pages)

[8] Harold Gonzales, Kevin Bauer, Janne Lindqvist, Damon McCoy, and Douglas Sicker. Practical Defenses for Evil Twin Attacks in 802.11. IEEE GlobeCom Communications and Information Security Symposium, Miami, FL. December 2010. (35% acceptance rate)

[9] Dirk Grunwald, Aaron Beach, Kevin Bauer, Qin Lv, and Douglas Sicker. The Risks and Regulation of Location. 38th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy (TPRC 2010), Arlington, VA. October 2010. (25% acceptance rate) (24 pages)

[10] J. Trent Adams, Kevin Bauer, Asa Hardcastle, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Automated Tracking of Online Service Policies. 38th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy (TPRC 2010), Arlington, VA. October 2010. (25% acceptance rate) (8 pages)

[11] Kevin Bauer, Joshua Juen, Nikita Borisov, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker, and Damon McCoy. On the Optimal Path Length for Tor. 3rd Hot Topics in Privacy Enhancing Technologies (HotPETS 2010). Berlin, Germany. July 2010. (73% acceptance rate) (17 pages)

[12] Douglas C Sicker, Leysia Palen, Dirk Grunwald, Ken Anderson, and Lisa Blumensaadt. Policy Issues Facing the Use of Social Network Information During Times of Crisis. 38th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy (TPRC 2010), Arlington, VA. October 2010. (25% acceptance rate) (15 pages)

[13] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Efficient Cross-Layer Optimization in Cognitive Radio Networks, in: Cognitive Radio Networks: Architectures, Protocols, and Standards, Zhang, Zheng, and Chen (Eds.), V 1, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2010. (15 pages)

[14] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Swarm Intelligence in Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks, in: Cognitive Radio Networks: Architectures, Protocols, and Standards, Zhang, Zheng, and Chen (Eds.), V 1, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, 2010. (15 pages)

[15] Janghyun Baek, Jonghun Park, Douglas C. Sicker and Taehan Lee. Modeling and performance analysis of the movement-based registration with implicit registration. IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol.E93-B, No.05, May 2010. (5 pages)

[16] Leysia Palen, Kenneth M. Anderson, Gloria Mark, James Martin, Douglas Sicker, Martha Palmer, and Dirk Grunwald. A Vision for Technology-Mediated Support for Public Participation & Assistance in Mass Emergencies & Disasters. ACM Visions of Computer Science conference. May 2010. (15% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[17] T.X. Brown and D. Sicker. Secure Distribution of Spectrum Policies to Cognitive Radios in Unmanned Aircraft Systems, in Proceedings of The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Infotech Airspace 2010. Atlanta, 20-22. April 2010. (8 pages)

[18] Aveek Dutta, Dola Saha, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker. An Architecture for Software Defined Cognitive Radio. ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS), La Jolla, USA, October 2010. (23% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[19] Dola Saha, Aveek Dutta, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker. Active Radar - A Cooperative Approach using Multicarrier Communication. IEEE 36th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN) ON-MOVE, Denver, USA, September 2010. (30% acceptance rate) (4 pages)

[20] Aveek Dutta, Dola Saha, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Practical Implementation of Blind Synchronization in NC-OFDM based Cognitive Radio Networks. Second ACM SIGMOBILE Workshop on. Cognitive Wireless Networking (CoRoNet), Chicago, USA, September 2010. (46% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[21] Dola Saha, Aveek Dutta, Dirk Grunwald, Douglas Sicker. Channel Assignment in Virtual Cut-Through Switching based Wireless Mesh Networks. 11th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN 2010), Kolkata, India, January 2010. (30% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[22] Eric Anderson, Gary Yee, Caleb Phillips, Michael Buettner, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Challenges in Deploying Steerable Wireless Testbeds, TridentCom, May 2010. (15% acceptance rate) (10 pages)

[23] Gary V. Yee, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. Understanding the Joint Application of Wireless Optimizations. The Fifth ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation and Characterization (WiNTECH 2010), May 2010. (8 pages)

[24] Gary V. Yee, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. The Effect of Ordering on Wireless Optimization Algorithms. Fifth IEEE Workshop on Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh 2010), April 2010. (30% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[25] Kevin Bauer, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Predicting Tor Path Compromise by Exit Port.  2nd IEEE International Workshop on Information and Data Assurance (WIDA 2009), 2009. (40% acceptance rate) (4 pages)

[26] Christian Doerr, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Local Control of Cognitive Radio Networks. Annals of Telecommunications, Vol. 64, No 1-2, Pages 503-534, 2009. (31 pages)

[27] Dola Saha, Aveek Dutta, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. SMACK- SMACK - A SMart ACKnowledgment Scheme for Broadcast Messages in Wireless Networks, ACM SigComm, August 2009. (10% acceptance rate) (12 pages)

[28] Dola Saha, Aveek Dutta, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. PAMAC: A PHY Aided MAC for Wireless Networks. IEEE InfoCom Mini-symposium, April 2009. (19% acceptance rate) (5 pages)

[29] Caleb Phillips, Suresh Singh, Douglas Sicker, Dirk Grunwald. Techniques for Simulation of Realistic Infrastructure Wireless Network Traffic, 7th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), April 2009. (33% acceptance rate) (7 pages)

[30] Eric Anderson, Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Modeling Environmental Effects on Directionality in Wireless Networks, 5th International Workshop on Wireless Network Measurements (WiNMee), May 2009. (35% acceptance rate) (7 pages)

[31] Eric Anderson, Gary Yee, Caleb Phillips, Douglas Sicker, Dirk Grunwald. The Impact of Directional Antenna Models on Simulation Accuracy. 7th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), April 2009. (33% acceptance rate) (7 pages)

[32] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Ben Greenstein, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Physical Layer Attacks on Unlinkability in Wireless LANs. Proceedings of the 9th Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium Seattle, WA (August 2009). [Our data is available in CRAWDAD] (31% acceptance rate) (20 pages)

[33] Kevin Bauer, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. The Challenges of Stopping Illegal Peer-to-peer File Sharing. In Proceedings of National Cable & Telecommunications Association Technical Papers, Washington, DC (April 2009). (6 pages)

[34] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Eric Anderson, Markus Breitenbach, Greg Grudic, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. The Directional Attack on Wireless Localization - or - How to Spoof Your Location with a Tin Can. Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference, Honolulu, HI (December 2009). [Our data is available in CRAWDAD] (35% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[35] Kevin Bauer, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. The Arms Race in P2P. The Proceedings of the 37th Research Conference on Communication, Information, and Internet Policy Arlington, VA (September 2009). (25% acceptance rate) (19 pages)

[36] Eric Anderson, Caleb Phillips, Harold Gonzales, Kevin Bauer, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. SniffMob: Inferring Human Contact Patterns using Wireless Devices. in Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Hot Topics of Planet-scale Mobility Measurements, Krakow, Poland (June 2009). (6 pages)

[37] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Ben Greenstein, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Performing Traffic Analysis on a Wireless Identifier-free Link Layer. in Proceedings of the 5th Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference Portland, OR (April 2009). (30% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[38] R. McTasney, D. Grunwald and D. Sicker. Low Latency Wireless Mesh Networks, Handbook of Wireless Mesh Networks. London, England: Springer, (2008).

[39] Tim Brown and Douglas C. Sicker. Examining the Viability of Cognitive Radio-based Broadband Wireless Access, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2008, Article 21, Jan. 2008. (12 pages).

[40] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Ben Greenstein, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Using Wireless Physical Layer Information to Construct Implicit Identifiers, Hot Topics in Privacy Enhancing Technologies, HOTPETS 2008. (45% acceptance rate) (15 pages)

[41] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald and Douglas Sicker. Dynamic Control Channel Assignment in Cognitive Radio Networks using Swarm Intelligence, IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) 2008. (37% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[42] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Dynamic Channel Management in Presence of Spectrum Heterogeneity, IEEE Military Communications Conference (Milcom) 2008. (8 pages)

[43] Damon McCoy, Kevin Bauer, Dirk Grunwald, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Douglas Sicker. Shining Light in Dark Places: Understanding the Tor Network, 8th Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium (PETS 2008) Leuven, Belgium (July 2008). (27% acceptance rate) (14 pages)

[44] Eric Anderson, Caleb Phillips, Kevin Bauer, Douglas Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Modeling Directionality in Wireless Networks (Extended Abstract), ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, Annapolis, MD (June 2008). (18% acceptance rate) (2 pages)

[45] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Local Independent Control of Cognitive Radio Networks, International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communication (CROWNCOM) 2008. (25% acceptance rate) (9 pages)

[46] R. McTasney, D. Grunwald and D. Sicker. Interference Mitigation In Wireless Mesh Networks Through STDMA Wormhole Switching, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications CrownCom 2008. IEEE, 2008. (25% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[47] Douglas C. Sicker and Christian Doerr. The 700 MHz Auction, Third IEEE Workshop on Networking Technologies for Software-Defined Radio Networks (SDR) 2008 (Invited Paper). (6 pages)

[48] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. Enhancing Cognitive Radio Algorithms through Efficient, Automated Adaptation Management, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC) 2008. (40% acceptance rate) (5 pages)

[49] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. Local Independent Control of Cognitive Radio Networks, International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communication (CROWNCOM) 2008. (25% acceptance rate) (9 pages)

[50] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. Algorithms in Cognitive Radio Networks, US/DoD - Finland/TEKES collaborative workshop for Issues in Wireless Communication Networking 2008. (6 pages)

[51] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas Sicker. BitBlender: Light-Weight Anonymity for BitTorrent, In Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Private and Anonymous Communications (AlPACa 2008), in conjunction with the 4th International Conference on Security and Privacy for Communication Networks (SecureComm 2008), Istanbul, Turkey (September 2008) (20% acceptance rate) (8 pages)

[52] Caleb Phillips, Suresh Singh, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Applying Models of User Activity for Dynamic Power Management in Wireless Devices, ACM Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MobileHCI), 2008. (22% acceptance rate) (4 pages)

[53] Caleb Phillips, Russell Senior, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Robust Coverage and Performance Testing for Large Area Networks, IEEE AccessNets, 2008. (13 pages)

[54] Christian Doerr, Michael Colagrosso, Dirk Grunwald and Douglas Sicker. Scalability of Cognitive Radio Control Algorithms, IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC) 2008. (8 pages)

[55] Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. Population Level Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio Networks, IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks 2008. (26% acceptance rate) (8 pages)

[56] Christian Doerr, Michael Colagrosso, Dirk Grunwald and Douglas Sicker. Scalability of Cognitive Radio Control Algorithms, IEEE International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC) 2008. (8 pages)

[57] Aveek Dutta, Jeffery Fifield, Graham Schelle, Dirk Grunwald and Douglas Sicker. An Intelligent Physical Layer for Cognitive Radio Networks. ACM Wireless Internet Conference (WICON), Maui, Hawaii, November 2008. (38% acceptance rate) (9 pages)

[58] Cameron Cooper, Joshua Mindel and Douglas C. Sicker, The Internet Interconnection Conundrum, iUniverse Press, 2007. (116 pages)

[59] Troy Weingart and Douglas C. Sicker. Cognitive and Software Defined Radio, Handbook of Computer Networking, Prentice Hall, 2007. (20 pages).

[60] Troy Weingart, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Identifying Opportunities for Exploiting Cross-Layer Interactions in Adaptive Wireless Systems, Journal on Advances in Multimedia, Vol. 2007, Issue 1, November 2007. (12 pages).

[61] Troy Weingart, Douglas C. Sicker, Dirk Grunwald. A Statistical Model for Configuring a Cognitive Radio Network, IEEE Wireless Networking, August 2007. (8 pages).

[62] Jang-Hyun Baek, Kyung-Hee Kim And Douglas C. Sicker. Modeling And Optimization Of Zone-Based Registration For Mobile Communication Network, Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 24, No. 5 (2007) 667-685. (18 pages)

[63] Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Measuring the Network, International Journal of Communication (IJoC), University of Southern California, Vol 1, August 2007. (14 pages)

[64] Douglas C Sicker and Paul Ohm. The Analog Hole and The Price of Digital Music: An Empirical Study, Journal on Telecommunications & High Technology Law, pp. 573 - 580, Vol 5, Spring 2007. (17 pages)

[65] Christian Doerr, Douglas C. Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Experiences Implementing Cognitive Radio Control Algorithms, IEEE Globecom 2007 Wireless Communications 2007, (39% acceptance rate) (6 pages).

[66] Thomas W. Rondeau, Allen B. MacKenzie, Charles W. Bostian, Keith E. Nolan, Linda Doyle, Douglas C. Sicker, Christian Doerr, Dirk Grunwald, Gary J. Minden, Joseph B. Evans. International Collaboration for a Cognitive Radio Testbed, Software-Defined Radio Technical Forum (SDR Conference) 2007 (6 pages).

[67] Paul Ohm, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Issues Involving Network Monitoring, Internet Measurement Conference (IMC), 2007 (invited paper) (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (10 pages)

[68] Kevin Bauer, Damon McCoy, Dirk Grunwald, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Douglas Sicker. Low-Resource Routing Attacks Against Tor, In Proceedings of the 2007 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES 2007). October 2007. (Acceptance Rate = 22%) (10 pages)

[69] John Giacomoni, John Bennett, Antonio Carzaniga, Douglas Sicker, Manish Vachharajani, and Alexander L. Wolf. Frame Shared Memory: Line-Rate Networking on Commodity Hardware, Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS), May 2007. (Acceptance Rate = 28%) (10 pages)

[70] Jeff Fifield, Dirk Grunwald, and Douglas C. Sicker. Experiences With a Platform for Frequency-Agility IEEE/ACM DySPAN (Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks) 2007. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (6 pages)

[71] R. McTasney, D. Grunwald, and D. Sicker. Multichannel Wormhole Switching vs. CSMA/CA for Wireless Mesh Networking, IEEE WCNC, December 2007. (47% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[72] Christian Doerr, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. What a Cognitive Radio Network Can Learn from a School of Fish, Wireless Internet Conference (WICON), 2007. (Acceptance Rate = 39%) (10 pages)

[73] Christian Doerr, Douglas C. Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Toward a Model for Characterizing Cognitive Radio Networks, IEEE GlobeCom 2007. (Acceptance Rate = 40%). (6 pages)

[74] R. McTasney, D. Grunwald, and D. Sicker. Low-Latency Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks, in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks 2007 ICCCN 2007. New York, NY, USA: IEEE, 2007, pp. 1082-1087. (29% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[75] R. McTasney, D. Grunwald, and D. Sicker. Low-Latency Wireless Mesh Networks, IEEE International Workshop on Wireless Mesh and Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Communications Society, August 2007. (30% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[76] Christian Doerr, Douglas Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Optimizing for Sparse Training of Cognitive Radio Networks, First International Workshop on Cognitive Wireless Networks (CWNets), 2007. (8 pages)

[77] Michael Buettner, Eric Anderson, Gary Yee, Dola Saha, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. A Phased Array Antenna Testbed for Evaluating Directionality in Wireless Networks, ACM MobiEval ’07, 2007. (73% acceptance rate) (6 pages)

[78] Troy Weingart, Gary Yee, Douglas C. Sicker, and Dirk Grunwald. Implementation of a Reconfiguration Algorithm for Cognitive Radio, IEEE CrownCom, 2007. (60% acceptance rate) (10 pages)

[79] Douglas C. Sicker. Perceptions Concerning The Inclusion Of Public Policy Materials In Engineering Curriculum, American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Meeting, 2007. (10 pages)

[80] Brad Bernthal, Douglas C. Sicker, Dale Hatfield, Phil Weiser and Tim Brown. Trends and Precedents Favoring Regulatory Embrace of Smart Radio Technologies, IEEE/ACM DySPAN (Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks) 2007. (25% acceptance rate) (16 pages)

[81] Tim Brown and Douglas C. Sicker. Can Cognitive Radios Enable Broadband? IEEE/ACM DySPAN (Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks) 2007. (25% acceptance rate) (10 pages)

[82] Douglas Sicker, Damon McCoy, and Dirk Grunwald. A Mechanism for Detecting and Responding to Misbehaving Nodes in Wireless Networks, SDR Workshop, IEEE SECON, 2007. (21% acceptance rate) (7 pages)

[83] Hannes Tschofenig, Rainer Falk, Jon Peterson, Douglas Sicker, James Polk, Jeff Hodges. Using SAML to Protect the Session Initiation Protocol, IEEE Network, Vol. 20, pp. 14-18, September 2006. (5 pages)

[84] Mindel, J.L. and Sicker, D.C. Leveraging The EU Regulatory Framework To Improve A Layered Policy Model For US Telecommunications Markets, Journal of Telecommunications Policy, 30 (2), p.136-148, Mar 2006. (13 pages)

[85] Sheth, Doerr, Han, Grunwald and Sicker. MoJo, A Distributed Physical Layer Anomaly Detection System For 802.11 Wireless LANs, the Proceedings of ACM MobiSys 2006, pp. 191 - 204. (Acceptance Rate = 12%) (14 pages)

[86] Sicker, Grunwald, Anderson, Munsinger and Sheth. Examining The Wireless Commons, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference 2006. (Acceptance Rate = 28%) (20 pages)

[87] John Chapin and Douglas C. Sicker. Safety and Certification for New Radio Technologies, IEEE Communications, Vol. 44, Issue 9, pp. 29-31, September 2006. (Acceptance Rate = 25%)

[88] Troy Weingart, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. Evaluation of Cross-Layer Interactions for Reconfigurable Radio Platforms, IEEE Technology and Policy for Accessing Spectrum (TAPAS), August 2006. (9 pages)

[89] Troy Weingart, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. A Predictive Model for Cognitive Radio, IEEE Military Communications (MILCOM), October 2006. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (7 pages)

[90] Troy Weingart, Douglas C. Sicker and Dirk Grunwald. A Method for Dynamic Configuration of a Cognitive Radio, IEEE Networking Technologies for Software Defined Radio Networks. September 2006. (9 pages)

[91] Douglas Sicker, Dirk Grunwald, and Tom Lookabaugh. Multimedia Quality of Service and Net Neutrality on Wireless Networks, 9th Annual International Symposium On Advanced Radio Technologies (ISART), 2006. (8 pages)

[92] Douglas C. Sicker and Tom Lookabaugh. Engineering Students and Law Conferences, American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference, 2006. (8 pages)

[93] Jang Hyun Baek, Jae Young Seo, Seog Ku Lim, and Douglas C. Sicker. An Enhanced Location-Based Location Update Scheme in Mobile Cellular Networks, ETRI Journal, vol.27, no.4, Aug. 2005, pp.456-460. (5 pages)

[94] Douglas C. Sicker, Tom Lookabaugh and Patrick S. Ryan. A Model for Emergency Service of VoIP Through Certification and Labeling, Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 58, pp. 146 - 200, 2005. (54 pages)

[95] Sicker and Blumensaadt. Misunderstanding the Layered Models, Journal on Telecommunications & High Technology Law, pp. 44 - 111, Fall 2005. (67 pages)

[96] Douglas C. Sicker. The End of Federalism in Telecommunication Regulations, North Western University, Journal of Technology & Intellectual Property 130, pp.130-160, at http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/njtip/v3/n2/3, 2005. (31 pages)

[97] Jason Franklin, Damon McCoy, Parisa Tabriz, Vicentiu Neagoe, Jamie Van Randwyk, and Douglas Sicker. Passive Data Link Layer 802.11 Wireless Device Driver Fingerprinting, Proceedings of the 15th USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 167 - 178, August 2006. (Acceptance Rate = 12%) (12 pages)

[98] Doerr, Weingart, Sicker and Grunwald. MultiMAC - An Adaptive MAC Framework for Dynamic Radio Networking, IEEE/ACM DySPAN (Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks) 2005, pp. 548 - 555, 2005. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (8 pages)

[99] Sicker, D and Marcus, S. Regulatory Models and VoIP, 33rd Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2005. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (20 pages)

[100] Giacomoni and Sicker. Difficulties in Providing Certification and Assurance for Non-Functional Requirements IEEE/ACM DySPAN (Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks), 2005. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (12 pages)

[101] Sur, A. and Sicker, D.C. Multi-Layer Rules-Based Framework for Vertical Handoff, IEEE BroadNets, 2005. (Acceptance Rate = 38%) (10 pages)

[102] Sicker, Lookabaugh, Santos and Barnes. Assessing the Effectiveness of Remote Networking Laboratories, 35th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Indianapolis, IN, October 19-22, 2005. (6 pages)

[103] S. McGann and D. Sicker. An Analysis of Security Threats and Tools in SIP-Based VoIP Systems, 2nd Annual VoIP Security Workshop, 2005. (11 pages)

[104] Weingart, Sicker, Grunwald and Neufeld. Adverbs and Adjectives: An Abstraction for Software Defined Radio, International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technology (ISART), 2005. (9 pages)

[105] Jang Hyun Baek, Jae Young Seo, and Douglas C. Sicker. Performance Analysis and Optimization of an Improved Dynamic Movement-Based Location Update Scheme in Mobile Cellular Networks, International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA), 2005. (13 pages)

[106] Jang Hyun Baek, Jae Young Seo, and Douglas C. Sicker. Optimization of an Improved Dynamic Movement-Based Location Update Scheme in Mobile Cellular Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3483, pp.528-537, 2005. (10 pages)

[107] T. Lookabaugh and D. C. Sicker. Self-Regulation of E911 For VoIP: Lessons or the Cable Industry from Environmental Voluntary Agreements, 2005 Magness Institute Academic Seminar, National Cable Television Association, 2005. (10 pages)

[108] Lookabaugh, T. and Sicker, D.C. Security and Lock-in, a chapter in Economics of Information Security: Advances in Information Security Series, Vol. 12, pp. 225 - 246, 2004. (22 pages)

[109] Sicker, D.C., Lookabaugh, T. VoIP Security: Not an Afterthought, ACM Queue Magazine, Vol. 2 No 6, pp. 56-64, 2004. (8 pages)

[110] T. Lookabaugh and D. C. Sicker. Selective Encryption for Consumer Applications, IEEE Communications Magazine, v. 42, n. 5, pp. 124-129, May 2004. (6 pages)

[111] Sicker, D., and Stuka, M. An Evaluation of VoIP Traversal of Firewalls and NATs within an Enterprise Environment, Information Systems Frontiers Journal, V. 6, No. 3, pp. 219-228, 2004. (9 pages)

[112] Rohrer, C. and Sicker, D. Implications of DOCSIS-QoS on Cable Broadband Service, 32nd Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2004. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (30 pages)

[113] Sicker, D.C., Lookabaugh, T. A Model for E911 VoIP Certification, 32nd Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2004. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (31 pages)

[114] Sicker, Tschofenig, and Peterson. Trait-based Authorization Mechanisms for SIP Based on SAML, IEEE GlobeCom 2004, VoIP Security Workshop, December 2004. (Acceptance Rate = 35%) (6 pages)

[115] Barnes, Fuchs, Silverstein, Ko, Lookabaugh, Brown and Sicker. Integrate Utilities Engineering Management MS Program 37th Annual IEEE Frontiers of Power Conference Proceedings, 2004. (6 pages)

[116] Sicker, Douglas and Lookabaugh, Tom. A Model for Emergency Service of VoIP Through Certification and Labeling NET Institute Conference, http://ssrn.com/abstract=621724, 2004.

[117] T. Lookabaugh and D.C. Sicker. Information Technology Mediated Education - Revolution not Evolution, 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2004. (5 pages)

[118] T. Lookabaugh and D.C. Sicker. Topics in Cable and Security, NCTA Academic Seminar, 2004. (9 pages)

[119] T. Lookabaugh and D. C. Sicker. Selective Encryption for Consumer Applications, IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2004. (8 pages)

[120] Sicker, D. Privacy and Anonymity Through Role Based Authorization, 31st Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2003. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (14 pages)

[121] Shah, Sicker and Hatfield. Thinking About Openness in the Telecommunications Context, 31st Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2003. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (20 pages)

[122] Sicker, D. A Federated Model for Secure Web-Based Videoconferencing, IEEE Computer Society Press Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 2003.  (5 pages)

[123] Sicker, D. Public Safety and Emergency Services in Future Wireless Communications, Fifth Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, 2003. (6 pages)

[124] Savage, Lookabaugh, and Sicker. Broadband Internet Access: Awareness and Use, 25th Annual Pacific Telecommunications Council, 2003. (27 pages)

[125] Lookabaugh and Sicker. Security Analysis of Selectively Encrypted MPEG-2 Streams, Multimedia Systems and Applications VI, International Symposium on ITCom, 2003. (12 pages)

[126] Sicker, D.C. and Chavali, A. and Kalkarni, A. SAML-SIP Profiles for Inter-domain Role-Based Authorization, IASTED International Conference on Communication, Network and Information Security, 2003.

[127] Lookabaugh, Sicker, and Savage. Broadband Demand and Wireless, 5th Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Research, 2003.

[128] Sicker, D.C. A Layered Model for VoIP, 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2003.

[129] Lookabaugh and Sicker. Security and Lock-In: The Case of the U. S. Cable Industry, 2nd Annual Economics and Information Security Workshop, 2003. (11 pages)

[130] Sicker, D. and Mindel, J. Refinements of a Layered Model for Telecommunications Policy, Journal on Telecommunications & High Technology Law, V1, No. 1, pp. 101-130, 2002. (29 pages)

[131] Sicker, D.C. A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of Emerging Signaling Protocols, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2000. (Acceptance Rate = 25%)

[132] Sicker, D.C., and Kende, M. Real-time Services and the Fragmentation of the Internet, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 2000. (Acceptance Rate = 25%)

[133] Sicker, D.C., and Weiss, M. Funding Models for AIN-based LNP, Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, 1998. (Acceptance Rate = 25%) (14 pages)

[134] Sicker, D.C., Weiss, M. Performance Issues of AIN-based Local Number Portability Solutions, 6th Intl. Telecommunication Systems Performance and Modeling Conference, Vanderbilt University, 1998. (Acceptance Rate = 30%) (21 pages)

[135] Sicker, D.C. Active and Intelligent Networks, 12th Annual IEEE Workshop on Computer Communications Proceedings, Phoenix, AZ, 1997.

[136] Salup, R.R., Sicker D.C., Finley, G.G. and Wolmark, N.: Estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell lines express neu, ndf and CD54. Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 35: 211, 1994.

[137] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Wolmark, N., Finley, G.G.: Expression and function of the ndf/neu ligand/receptor complex in prostate cancer cell lines. Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Cancer Research 35: 1668, 1994.

[138] Corral, D.A., Sicker, D.C., Salup, R.R.: Stimulation of osteoblast by growth factors from human prostate cancer cells supernatants. Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 35: 1669, 1994.

[139] Salup, R.R., Corral, D.A., Sicker, D.C., Wolmark, N.: Peptide- induced augmentation of renal cell cancer lysis by natural killer and cytotoxic lymphocytes. Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 35: 2930, 1994.

[140] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Wolmark, N., Finley, G.G.: Presence and biological implications of the HER2/neu receptor and its ligand NDF in prostate cancer cells. Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association, May 14 - 19, 1994, San Francisco, California.

[141] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Ballou, B.T., Flack, C.E., Wolmark, N. and Hakala, T.R.: Improved Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity Against Murine Renal Cell Carcinoma .J. Immunology. 147: 491 - 495, 1992.

[142] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Wolmark, N., Herberman, R.B. and Hakala, T.R.: Chemoimmunotherapy of Metastatic Murine Renal Carcinoma Using Flavonic Acetic Acid and Interleukin 2 .J. Urology, Vol. 147, 1120 - 1123, April, 1992.

[143] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Gaines, T.P., Langheinrich, C., Hakala, T.R. and Wolmark, N.: CD54 expression by tumor cells affects lysis by natural killer cells and response to biological response modifiers therapy. Proceedings of the 83rd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 33: 1770, 1992.

[144] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C., Wolmark, N., Herberman, R.B. and Hakala, T.R.: Chemoimmunotherapy of metastatic murine renal cell carcinoma using flavonic acetic acid and interleukin 2. Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association, June 2 - 6, 1991, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

[145] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C. and Wolmark, N.: Modulation of lymphocyte cytotoxicity using anti-CD3, interleukin 4.Proceedings of the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 32: 1369, 1991.

[146] Salup, R.R., Ballou, B.T., Sicker, D., Hakala, T.R. and Wolmark, N.: Improved lymphocyte cytotoxicity against murine renal carcinoma. Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 31: 265, 1990.

[147] Wolmark, N., Sicker, D., Yee, L., Hiserodt, J.C. and Salup, R.R.: Successful Chemoimmunotherapy of murine mammary adenocarcinoma using human recombinant interleukin 2 and doxorubicin hydrochloride. Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 31:268, 1990.

[148] Salup, R.R., Sicker, D.C. and Wolmark, N: Verapamil enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin against three solid tumors. Proceeding of the 81st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 31: 402, 1990.

[149] Salup, R.R., Toth, J.A., Sicker, D. and Wolmark, N.: Chemoimmunotherapy of Metastatic Mammary Adenocarcinoma using Flavonic Acetic Acid, Doxorubicin hydrochloride and Human Recombinant Interleukin-6. Proceeding of the 80th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research 30: 1460, 1989.

[150] Pies, S and Sicker, D., Editors. The Future of Our Nation's Communications Infrastructure, A Federal Advisory Committee Report to the Nation, Network Reliability and Interoperability Council, 2002. (291 pages)

[151] K. Dixon, J. L. Gattuso, R. L. Gifford, R. J. May, H. A. Shelanski, D. C. Sicker, J. B. Speta, and D. Weisman. Digital age communications act - proposal of the regulatory framework working group, release 1.0. The Progress and Freedom Foundation. June 2005.

[152] R. Atkinson, K. D. Dixon, R. L. Gifford, K. Lassman, D. C. Sicker, S. Titch, A. D. Thierer, and P. Weiser. A digital age communications act - report from the working group on federal-state framework, release 2.01. The Progress and Freedom Foundation. October 2005.

[153] Sicker, D.C. The Effects of Emerging Signaling Protocols on Future Telephony, CCH Telecom Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1999. (10 pages)

[154] Sicker, D.C., Newman, S. Evolving Regulatory Perspectives on Telephone Network Reliability, CCH Telecom Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, December 1998. (10 pages)

[155] IETF RFC 4484, Trait-based Authorization Requirements for the Session Initiation Protocol, Peterson, Polk, Sicker and Tschofenig, 2006.

[156] R. S. Whitt. A horizontal leap forward: Formulating a new communications public policy framework based on the network layers model. Federal Communications Law Journal, 56(3), 2004.

[157] An Assessment of the Viability of Accommodating Wireless Broadband in the 1755-1850 MHz Band, Department of Commerce, March 27, 2012.

[158] Measuring Broadband America, Federal Communications Commission, http://www.fcc.gov/measuring-broadband-america, 2011.

[159] Open Internet, Federal Communications Commission, http://www.fcc.gov/topic/open-internet, 2010.

[160] NTIA Recommendations to FCC, http://www.ntia.doc.gov/fcc-filing/2012/ntia-lightsquared-recommendation-fcc, 2012.