This is not a comprehensive bibliography on the history of nonviolence. The books listed here are those were most useful to me in preparing this book.



Bainton, Roland H. Christian Attitudes Toward War And Peace. New York: Abingdon Press, 1960.

Brock, Peter. A Brief History Of Pacifism From Jesus to Tolstoy. 2nd ed. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1992.

Brock, Peter. Freedom From Violence: Sectarian Nonresistance From The Middle Ages To The Great War. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Brock, Peter. Pacifism in Europe to 1914. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Cahill, Lisa Sowle. Love Your Enemies : Discipleship, Pacifism, And Just War Theory. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994.

Dyck, Harvey L., ed. The Pacifist Impulse In Historical Perspective. Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Johnson, James Turner. The Quest For Peace : Three Moral Traditions In Western Cultural History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Schlabach, Theron F. and Richard T. Hughes, eds. Proclaim Peace : Christian Pacifism From Unexpected Quarters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.



Estep, William Roscoe. The Anabaptist Story : An Introduction To Sixteenth-Century Anabaptism. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996.

Goertz, Hans-Jurgen. The Anabaptists. London: Routledge, 1996.

Liechty, Daniel, ed. Early Anabaptist Spirituality : Selected Writings. New York : Paulist Press, 1994.



Bailey, Richard. New Light On George Fox And Early Quakerism : The Making And Unmaking Of A God. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1992.

Barbour, Hugh and J. William Frost. The Quakers. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Brinton, Howard Haines. Friends For 300 Years; The History And Beliefs Of The Society Of Friends Since George Fox Started The Quaker Movement. New York: Harper Bros., 1952.

Brock, Peter. The Quaker Peace Testimony 1660 to 1914. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1990.

Cady, Edwin H. John Woolman: The Mind of the Quaker Saint. New York: Washington Square Press, 1966.

Dandelion, Pink. A Sociological Analysis Of The Theology Of Quakers: The Silent Revolution Lewiston, NY: Edward Mellen Press, 1996.

Endy, Melvin B., Jr. William Penn and Early Quakerism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973

Gwyn, Douglas. Apocalypse Of The Word : The Life And Message Of George Fox (1624-1691). Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1986.

Hirst, Margaret Esther. The Quakers In Peace And War; An Account Of Their Peace Principles And Practice. New York: J. S. Ozer, 1972 [1923].

Marietta, Jack D. The Reformation of American Quakerism, 1748-1783. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984.

Woolman, John. The Journal And Major Essays Of John Woolman. Edited by Phillip P. Moulton. New York, Oxford University Press, 1971.






Cooney, Robert and Helen Michalowski, eds. The Power of the People: Active Nonviolence in the United States. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1987.

Lynd, Staughton and Helen, eds. Nonviolence in America. 2nd ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1995.

O'Gorman, Angie, ed. The Universe Bends Toward Justice : A Reader On Christian Nonviolence In The U.S. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1990.

Peterson, Carl L. Avoidance And Evasion Of Military Service: An American History, 1626-1973. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications, 1998.

Tracy, James. Direct Action: Radical Pacifism From The Union Eight To The Chicago Seven. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.



Ballou, Adin. Practical Christian Socialism: A Conversational Exposition Of The True System Of Human Society. New York: AMS Press, 1974 [1854].

Nelson, Truman, ed. Documents Of Upheaval; Selections From William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, 1831-1865. New York: Hill and Wang, 1966.

Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform And The Religious Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Kraditor, Aileen S. Means And Ends In American Abolitionism; Garrison And His Critics On Strategy And Tactics, 1834-1850. New York: Pantheon Books, 1969.

Mayer, Henry. All On Fire : William Lloyd Garrison And The Abolition Of Slavery. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Nye, Russel Blaine. William Lloyd Garrison And The Humanitarian Reformers. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955.

Perry, Lewis. Radical Abolitionism; Anarchy and The Government Of God In Antislavery Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973.

Perry, Lewis. "Adin Ballouís Hopedale Community and the Theology of Antislavery." Church History 39 (1970), 372-379.

Rogers, William B. "We Are All Together Now": Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, And The Prophetic Tradition. New York : Garland Publishing, 1995.

Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976.

Strong, Douglas M., Perfectionist Politics: Abolitionism and the Religious Tensions of American Democracy. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1999.

Ziegler, Valarie H. The Advocates of Peace in Antebellum America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, c1992






Thoreau, Henry David. Walden and Other Writings. Edited by Brooks Atkinson. New York: Modern Library, 1950.

Thoreau, Henry David. "Slavery in Massachusetts." In Walden and Other Writings. Edited by Brooks Atkinson. New York: Modern Library, 1950.

Thoreau, Henry David. "Plea for John Brown," In Walden and Other Writings. Edited by Brooks Atkinson. New York: Modern Library, 1950.

Bickman, Martin. Walden: Volatile Truths. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992.

Taylor, Bob Pepperman. America's Bachelor Uncle: Thoreau and the American Polity. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1996.

Bennett, Jane. Thoreau's Nature: Ethics, Politics, and The Wild. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994.


Tolstoy, Leo. Tolstoy's Writings On Civil Disobedience and Non-Violence. New York: Bergman Publishers, 1967.

Tolstoy, Leo. The Kingdom Of God Is Within You; Or, Christianity Not As A Mystical Teaching But As A New Concept Of Life. New York: Noonday Press, 1961.

Sokolow, Jayme A. Leo Tolstoi's Christian Pacifism : The American Contribution. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Center for Russian and East European Studies, 1987.

Redfearn, David. Tolstoy: Principles For a New World Order. London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1992.

Sampson, Ronald Victor. The Discovery of Peace. New York: Pantheon Books, 1973.

Greenwood, Edward Baker. Tolstoy: The Comprehensive Vision. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1975.

Wilson, A. N. Tolstoy. New York: Norton, 1988.

Green, Martin Burgess. Tolstoy and Gandhi, Men of Peace : A Biography. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Gustafson, Richard F. Leo Tolstoy: Resident and Stranger. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.



Goldman, Emma. Red Emma Speaks: An Emma Goldman Reader. Edited by Alix Kates Shulman. 3rd ed. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1996.

Bookchin, Murray. The Murray Bookchin Reader. Edited by Janet Biehl. London and Washington: Cassell, 1997.

Sonn, Richard David. Anarchism. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992.

Reichert, William O. Partisans Of Freedom: A Study In American Anarchism. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1976.



u.s. history from world war i to World War I I

DeBenedetti, Charles, ed. Peace Heroes In Twentieth-Century America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986.

DeBenedetti, Charles. Origins Of The Modern American Peace Movement, 1915-1929. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1978.

Patterson, David S. Toward A Warless World : The Travail Of The American Peace Movement, 1887-1914. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1976.

Chatfield, Charles. For Peace And Justice; Pacificism In America, 1914-1941. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1971.

Lamson, Peggy. Roger Baldwin, Founder Of The American Civil Liberties Union: A Portrait. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.

Gregg, Richard Bartlett. The Power of Non-violence. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1934.



Niebuhr, Reinhold. Moral Man and Immoral Society. New York: Scribner, 1960 [1932].

Niebuhr, Reinhold. The Nature And Destiny Of Man; A Christian Interpretation. 2 vols. New York: C. Scribnerís Sons, 1941-43.

McKeogh, Colm. The Political Realism Of Reinhold Niebuhr: A Pragmatic Approach To Just War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

Lovin. Robin W. Reinhold Niebuhr and Christian Realism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Meyer, Donald. The Protestant Search For Political Realism, 1919-1941. 2nd ed. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1988.

Fox, Richard Wightman. Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.

Kegley, Charles W., ed. Reinhold Niebuhr, His Religious, Social, And Political Thought. 2nd ed. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1984.

Muste, Abraham John. The Essays of A. J. Muste. Edited by Nat Hentoff. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1967.

Muste, Abraham John, 1885-1967. Non-Violence In An Aggressive World. New York: Harper, 1972 [1940].

Robinson, Jo Ann. Abraham Went Out: A Biography Of A. J. Muste. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981.


Gandhi, Mohandas K. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings. Edited by Dennis Dalton. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1996.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, Edited by Rhagavan Iyer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. Essential Writings. Edited by John Dear. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002.

Kapur, Sudarshan. Raising Up A Prophet: The African-American Encounter With Gandhi. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.

Sandhu, Swaran S. Nonviolence In Indian Religious Thought and Political Action. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1977.

Tahtinen, Unto. Indian Traditional Values. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1983.

Chapple, Christopher. Nonviolence To Animals, Earth, And Self In Asian Traditions. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Brown, Judith M. Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Easwaran, Eknath. Gandhi, The Man: The Story Of His Transformation. 3rd ed. Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press, 1997.

Nanda, Bal Ram. Gandhi and His Critics. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Rothermund, Indira Nalin. The Philosophy Of Restraint: Mahatma Gandhi's Strategy and Indian Politics. New York: Humanities Press, 1963.

Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber and Lloyd I. Gandhi, The Traditional Roots Of Charisma. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Mehta, Ved. Mahatma Gandhi and His Apostles. New York: Viking Press, 1977.

Dalton, Dennis. Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power In Action. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

King, Mary. Mahatma Gandhi And Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Power Of Nonviolent Action. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1999.

Iyer, Raghavan N. The Moral and Political Thought of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Parekh, Bhikhu C. Gandhi. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Parekh, Bhikhu C. Colonialism, Tradition, And Reform : An Analysis Of Gandhi's Political Discourse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1989.

Parekh, Bhikhu C. Gandhi's Political Philosophy : A Critical Examination. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989.

Puri, Rashmi-Sudha. Gandhi On War and Peace. New York: Praeger, 1987.

Clement, Catherine. Gandhi: The Power Of Pacifism. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996.

Chatterjee, Margaret. Gandhi's Religious Thought. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.



King, Martin Luther, Jr. A Testament Of Hope: The Essential Writings Of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edited by James Melvin Washington. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. I Have A Dream: Writings and Speeches That Changed the World. Edited by James Melvin Washington. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. The Autobiography Of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edited by Clayborne Carson. New York: Intellectual Properties Management, Inc. in association with Warner Books, 1998.

Moses, Greg. Revolution Of Conscience : Martin Luther King, Jr., and The Philosophy Of Nonviolence. New York: Guilford Press, 1997.

Baldwin, Lewis V. To Make The Wounded Whole: The Cultural Legacy Of Martin Luther King, Jr. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.

Harding, Vincent. Martin Luther King, The Inconvenient Hero. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996.

Downing, Frederick L. To See The Promised Land : The Faith Pilgrimage Of Martin Luther King, Jr. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1986.

Cone, James H. Martin & Malcolm & America : A Dream Or A Nightmare. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1991.

Erskine, Noel Leo. King Among The Theologians. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 1994.

Ivory, Luther D. Toward A Theology Of Radical Involvement : The Theological Legacy Of Martin Luther King, Jr. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997.

Taylor Branch. Parting The Waters: America In The King Years, 1954-1963. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Taylor Branch. Pillar Of Fire: America In The King Years, 1963-1965. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998

Dyson, Michael Eric. I May Not Get There With You: The True Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Free Press, 2000


dorothy day and the catholic worker movement

Day, Dorothy. By Little And By Little: The Selected Writings Of Dorothy Day. Edited by Robert Ellsberg. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983.

Klejment, Anne and Nancy L. Roberts, eds. American Catholic Pacifism : The Influence Of Dorothy Day And The Catholic Worker Movement. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

McNeal, Patricia F. Harder Than War : Catholic Peacemaking In Twentieth-Century America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

Piehl, Mel. Breaking Bread : The Catholic Worker And The Origin Of Catholic Radicalism In America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.

Coles, Robert. Dorothy Day: A Radical Devotion. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1987.



Deming, Barbara. Revolution & Equilibrium. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1971.

Deming, Barbara. Two Essays : On Anger; New Men, New Women: Some Thoughts On Nonviolence. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1982.

Deming, Barbara. We Are All Part Of One Another : A Barbara Deming Reader. Edited by Jane Meyerding. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1984.

Smith, E. Timothy. Opposition Beyond The Water's Edge : Liberal Internationalists, Pacifists And Containment, 1945-1953. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Merton, Thomas. Passion For Peace: The Social Essays, ed. William H. Shannon. New York: Crossroad Publishing, c1995

Merton, Thomas. Thomas Merton On Peace. New York, McCall Pub. Co.,1971.

Dellinger, David T. Revolutionary Nonviolence: Essays By Dave Dellinger. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1971.

Dellinger, David T. From Yale To Jail : The Life Story Of A Moral Dissenter. New York: Pantheon Books, 1993.

Sharp, Gene. The Politics Of Nonviolent Action. 3 vols. Boston: P. Sargent Publisher, 1973.

Finn, James, ed.. Protest: Pacifism And Politics; Some Passionate Views On War And Nonviolence. New York, Random House, 1968.

Thich nhat hanh and engaged BUDDHISM

Nhat Hanh, Thich. Being Peace. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press, 1988.

Nhat Hanh, Thich. Love In Action. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press, 1993.

Nhat Hanh, Thich. The Miracle Of Mindfulness!: A Manual Of Meditation. Boston: Beacon Press, 1976.

Nhat Hanh, Thich: Essential Writings. Edited by Robert Ellsberg. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2001.

Berrigan, Daniel and Thich Nhat Hanh. The Raft Is Not The Shore : Conversations Toward A Buddhist/ Christian Awareness. Boston: Beacon Press, 1975.

Jones, Ken. The Social Face Of Buddhism: An Approach To Political And Social Activism. London: Wisdom Publications, 1989.

Keown, Damien V., Charles S. Prebish, Wayne R. Husted, eds. Buddhism And Human Rights. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1998.

Queen, Christopher S. and Sallie B. King, eds. Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements In Asia. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Fu, Charles Wei-hsun and Sandra A. Wawrytko, eds. Buddhist Ethics And Modern Society: An International Symposium. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Kalupahana, David J. Ethics In Early Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995.

Aung San Suu Kyi. The Voice Of Hope; Conversations With Alan Clements. New York: Seven Stories Press, 1997.

Sivaraksa Sulak, Seeds of Peace: A Buddhist Vision for Renewing Society. Berkeley, CA: Parallax Press, 1991.