Figure 2

The transmembrane signal of the aspartate receptor, carried by a piston displacement of the signaling helix alpha-4/TM2. Shown are the periplasmic regions of the four transmembrane helices, and the aspartate-triggered translation of the signaling helix from the gray to red position downward toward the cytoplasm (Chervitz, S.A. and J.J. Falke (1996); Falke et al., 1997; Falke, J.J. and G.L. Hazelbauer, 2001).

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